The term is related to the generation of electricity using the gravitational force of water. The first turbines were built by the Romans, who used it for grinding flour to make bread. During the industrial revolution, water mills were built that were a source of hydroelectric power. The electric generators were developed at the end of 19 thUd BBBBBBBBB Bud BBBB Bud BBB Bud Bud BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBB all BBBBBBBB Bud Bud BBBBBB Bud BBB Bud BBBBBB Bud BBB Bud BBBB Bud BBBBBBBBBBBBBBB In the year 1878 more hydroelectric sites were developed and transmission lines were extended. It has been noted that since the year 1900, there has been an increase in hydroelectric power installations, but with this other sources are also used such as thermal energy, nuclear energy and other sources. It was seen that at the end of 1945 th Century, hydroelectric power plants were found to be larger in number and was even known as white coal.
Processes and technologies
The technologies used in hydroelectric power generation are conventional dams, which use energy from water and extracted power also depends on the volume or height of the river. Water is supplied from the tank to the penstock, which is supplied to the turbine. Pump storage is another process in which water is pumped into a higher tank, which is stored there if the electricity demand is low. With a sudden increase in demand, water is released through the turbine to the lower tank. In some regions, tidal power plants are also used that generate hydroelectric power with the rise and fall of ocean tides.
Considerable hydroelectric projects
The major projects that are present all over the world are the Itaipu dam, which is located between Paraguay and Brazil. It is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world that generates 12,600 megawatts of electricity and the height is 190 meters. Other projects are The Three Gorges Dam, which is built on the Yangtze River in China, the Grand Coulee dam located in Spokane in Washington, the Rogun dam in Russia, the Oroville dam located in California and the Idukki dam which is a bow -dam and is the largest and the first of its kind to be built in India, they are also noteworthy.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main advantage of hydropower is that it is safe and, unlike coal or fossil fuels, it does not produce any kind of waste. It’s quick to produce and a perfect source when you don’t have other sources like wind or sun, even the cost of electricity becomes small. On the other hand, however, its downsides include damage to the natural environment that can cause floods, silt causes and even the danger of breaking a dam wall and many others.
Trends for the future
Looking at the future generation of hydroelectric power, the trend that countries will follow is the use of a turbine structure suitable for fish along with many other related factors. It is a clean source of electricity supplied at low cost, allows for less dependence on fossil fuels and therefore a reduced effect on climatic conditions and public health.