Humanism is the perspective that verifies the various concepts of human progress and freedom. Humanism is a position of ethical and democratic life that states that everyone has the responsibility and the right to give shape and meaning to their lives. Numerous humanist intellectual groups have changed the exact definition of humanism. Currently, most humanist movements are non-religious and humanism refers to the position of non-theistic life focused on science and human action.
What is the origin of the term humanism?
The term “humanism” derives from the Latin notion “Humanitas” and was adopted in the English language during the 19th century. Although many historians agree that this notion precedes the exact term invented to describe it and includes various meanings. Humanitas includes the value imparted by learning to be human and benevolent towards one another.
The term Humanismus was coined in 1808 by a Bavarian theologian Friedrich Niethammer to describe his new curriculum which he planned to use in numerous secondary schools in Germany. Humanism was absorbed into the English language from 1836. The term humanism gained a global consensus when a German philologist and historian named Georg Voigt used it to describe Renaissance humanism, an Italian movement that flourished during the Renaissance era, but thoughts and the humanistic principles date back to 1500 BCE.
The humanistic philosophies that reject all the supernatural date back to 1500 BCE when it existed in the Indian philosophy of the Lokayata system. The yellow emperor in China was considered a humanistic primogenitor. In fact, the Duke of Zhou, who was instrumental in establishing Rujia, is responsible for the pioneering thoughts of humanism. Xenophanes of Colophon and Thales of Miletus were the first Greek philosophers to try to describe the world regarding reasoning instead of traditions and myths during the 6th century.
What are the different types of humanism?
1) Secular humanism
Secular humanism is a branch of humanism that rejects the theistic religion and the religious belief of the existence of the supernatural world. The secular humanists believe that adhering to all humanistic notions is translated into secularism because there is no rational argument that supports the reality of a supernatural world. Secular humanism is sometimes called Humanism.
2) Classical humanism
Classical humanism, also called Renaissance Humanism, was the first flowering of the humanistic notions developed between the 15th and 16th centuries. Renaissance humanism promoted individual dignity and human value, in addition, they believed in the practice of liberal arts in all classes. Renaissance humanism was developed to respond to all the challenges of the university education system dominated by Aristotelian logic and philosophies.
3) Religious humanism
Religious humanism is a humanist branch that considers itself very religious embracing some form of Deism and theism without allying any organized religion. Religious humanists believe that secular humanists are coldly logical and ignore the emotional part that makes us human beings. Religious humanism is associated with numerous scholars and artists in Christianity and the liberal arts. These individuals are not superstitious people, but consider ethical humanism as their religion, plus they always plan to integrate congregational rituals centered on the capacities and needs of human interest with age-old ethical philosophies.