The study of biological inheritance. Genetics studies how parents’ characters are transmitted to their children.Genetics is a branch of biology that studies how hereditary characters are transmitted from generation to generation.Genes are the units of information that organisms use to transfer a character to offspring. The gene contains coded instructions to synthesize all the proteins in an organism. These proteins are the ones that will eventually give rise to all the characters of an individual (phenotype).
What does it consist of?
Genes are actually fragments of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), a molecule that is found in the nucleus of all our cells and is an essential part of chromosomes. In short, DNA is the molecule in which the instructions that allow the development and functioning of living organisms are stored.
The DNA stores this information in a 4-letter code (A, T, G and C). The set of letters with which a protein can be synthesized is called a gene. Alterations in this information can produce non-functional proteins that can cause the development of a disease.
The complete package of DNA instructions (also called Genome), is divided into 23 volumes of information called chromosomes. We have two copies of each of these volumes, one inherited from our father and one from our mother. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes.
The study of genetics allows us to understand what happens in the cell cycle and how between human beings biological characteristics ( genotype ), physical characteristics ( phenotype ) and even one’s personality are transferred , for example, “the great resemblance between parents and their decendents”. In reference to the above, the cell cycle is the process by which the cell grows and is divided into two daughter cells.
Acronym that corresponds to the nomenclature deoxyribonucleic acid , identified as the main molecule that contains all the genetic information of a certain living being.
In the middle of the last century, the Nobel Prize was awarded to scientists responsible for decoding the DNA code. Despite being investigated for a long time, this was the moment of greatest consolidation and recognition of the hypothesis.
DNA is a chemical compound present in our bodies at the cellular level . The composition of its protein bases provides information for all of our physical characteristics, constituting what we call the genotype of each individual.
Genetic psychology is a genetic theory initiated by Jean Piaget , which consists in the study of the development or psychic changes products of the different stages through which the child goes through until becoming an adult through the structural, clinical and psychogenetic methods.