Azithromycin is an antibiotic belonging to the macrolide family . These make up a large family of natural products, many of which exhibit antibiotic activity.
Macrolide antibiotics are particular molecules that interfere with the protein synthesis of the pathogenic microorganism (exercised by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit, which prevents the peptidyltransferase enzyme from providing for the elongation of the nascent polypeptide chain), consequently blocking the growth and multiplication of the microbe. Macrolide antibiotics usually have a bacteriostatic action but, when administered in high dosages, they also become bactericidal.
What is Azithromycin used for?
It is used to deal with different types of infections:
- skin and soft tissue infections;
- upper and lower respiratory tract infections;
- odontostomatological infections;
- urogenital infections.
How is Azithromycin taken?
It can be administered orally , in the form of tablets or powder for oral suspension , or parenterally (powder and solvent for intravenous or intramuscular injections).
Therapy changes according to the type of infection to be fought. In general, the intake of 500-1000 mg of Azithromycin per day is sufficient to control bacterial proliferation in 3 days of treatment.
Dose adjustment should be expected in the case of the elderly or individuals with liver dysfunction. The use in pediatric age should instead be defined and supervised by the specialist interested in the case.
Side effects of Azithromycin
Its side effects include:
- gastrointestinal complaints ( diarrhea , feeling sick , retching, abdominal pain);
- rare dermatological disorders (skin rush, edema, urticaria );
- rare cardiological changes;
- central nervous system disorders ( headache , fatigue , irritability);
- abnormal liver function
- in the case of injections, swelling and pain may occur at the site of administration of the drug.
Contraindications and warnings on the use of Azithromycin
Its administration is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to Azithromycin, to other macrolide antibiotics or to other components and excipients.It should not be used in people suffering from severe liver failure .The use in pregnancy and lactation is contraindicated .