Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect. A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the wall (septum) between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). A septal defect is commonly known as a “hole” in the heart .


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  • 1 Definition
  • 2 Causes
  • 3 Risk factors
  • 4 Symptoms
  • 5 Diagnosis
  • 6 Treatment
    • 1 Medications
    • 2 Surgery
  • 7 Source


Normally, the right side of the heart receives low-oxygen blood and pumps it to the lungs, where it fills with oxygen. The blood is then sent back to the left side of the heart , which pumps high- oxygen blood to the rest of the body. But with VSD, the heart pumps inefficiently. High oxygen content blood is pumped back into the lungs . VSD can cause an enlarged heart and high blood pressure in the pulmonary blood vessels (this is called pulmonary hypertension). VSDs are usually diagnosed in childhood, and many close on their own. VSDs that do not close can be treated with surgery.


Most VSDs are associated with a type of congenital heart defect; This means that they are present at birth. It is not clear why VSDs develop, but genetics may have some influence. Although they are atypical, some VSDs can occur after a heart attack .

Risk factor’s

These factors increase the probability of developing this condition. Tell your doctor if you have any of the following risk factors:

  • Age: young infants and children.
  • Father or mother with a septal defect.
  • Other genetic defects (eg, Down syndrome).
  • Alcohol or thalidomide consumption during pregnancy.
  • Rubelladuring the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Maternal diabetes.


Small VSDs may have no symptoms. If your child experiences any of these symptoms, do not assume it is because of VSD. They could be caused by other less serious health conditions. If your child suffers from any of them, call the doctor. Symptoms include:

  • Heart murmur, which can be heard when the baby is born or is 6 to 8 weeks old.
  • Signs of heart failureduring childhood.
  • Difficulty feeding.
  • Growth deficiency.


The doctor will ask about symptoms and medical history. The test involves hearing your child’s heart to detect a heart murmur. If a heart problem is suspected, your child will likely be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. He is a doctor who specializes in heart problems in babies and children. Tests may include:

  • Echocardiogram —a test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to examine the size, shape, and movement of the heart.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) – a test that records the activity of the heart by measuring electrical currents through the heart muscle.
  • Chest x– ray : A test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, especially bones.
  • Pulse oximetry: used to measure the amount of oxygen in the blood.
  • Cardiac catheterization – a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into the left or right side of the heart to detect abnormalities in the arteriesthat supply blood to the heart .
  • Analysis of blood.


Many babies born with a ventricular septal defect do not need surgery to close it. After birth, the doctor will want to watch your baby and treat the symptoms while waiting to see if the defect closes on its own. Depending on the size of the defect, doctors may delay surgery until the child is older. All people with a ventricular septal defect need to take antibiotics before a dental practice and certain types of surgical procedures. Be sure to remind your dentist or doctor that your child has a ventricular septal defect and check to see if your child needs to take antibiotics before any medical procedure.


The drugs to treat ventricular septal defect are given to:

  • Maintain a regular heart rate.
  • Increase the strength of cardiac contractions.
  • Decrease the flow of fluid in the circulation.


Surgery for a ventricular septal defect involves covering or covering the abnormal opening between the ventricles. This usually involves open heart surgery, which is performed under general anesthesia. Surgery requires an extracorporeal circulation pump and an incision in the chest. The doctor uses patches or stitches to close the hole. Another method is also used to close some ventricular septal defects: cardiac catheterization . Catheterization, which is under investigation, does not require opening of the chest. The doctor inserts a thin tube into a blood vessel in the groin and guides it to the baby’s heart. For a ventricular septal defect, the doctor can close the hole using a small cloth patch or plug during catheterization. the tissueThe heart grows around the fabric forming a permanent seal. After treatment, your child will need to undergo medical follow-up to ensure that the ventricular septal defect remains closed. Depending on the size of the ventricular septal defect and the presence or absence of other problems, the doctor will tell you how often you should bring your child to the appointments.


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