Vaginitis

Vaginitis . It is the name given to any inflammation or infection of the vagina. It is a common gynecological problem that affects women of all ages, almost all women will have at least one form of vaginitis in their lifetime. The vagina is the muscular channel located between the uterus and the external genital area. Vaginitis can occur when the vaginal walls become inflamed, due to an irritant that upsets the balance of the vaginal area.

Summary

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  • 1 Causes
  • 2 Most frequent types
    • 1 Candida or vaginal yeast infections
    • 2 Symptoms
      • 2.1 Risk of infection
    • 3 Diagnosis
    • 4 Treatment
  • 3 Bacterial vaginosis
    • 1 Symptoms
    • 2 Treatment
  • 4 Trichomoniasis infection
    • 1 Symptoms
    • 2 Treatment
  • 5 Chlamydia infection
    • 1 Symptoms
    • 2 Treatment
  • 6 Gonococcal vaginitis
    • 1 Symptoms
    • 2 Treatment
  • 7 viral vaginitis
  • 8 Non-infectious vaginitis
    • 1 Symptoms
    • 2 Treatment
  • 9 Source

Causes

Bacteria, mushrooms, viruses, chemicals in creams or sprays, or even clothing can cause vaginitis. Sometimes vaginitis occurs from organisms that pass from one sexual partner to the other. In addition, the vaginal environment is under the influence of many factors including women’s health, personal hygiene, medications, hormones (especially estrogen), and the health of their sexual partner. A change in any one of those factors can trigger vaginitis.

Most frequent types

The six most common types of vaginitis include the following:

  • Candidainfection .
  • Bacterial vaginitis.
  • Vaginitis trichomonas.
  • Vaginitis chlamydia.
  • Gonococcal vaginitis.
  • Viral vaginitis.
  • Non-infectious vaginitis.

Each of these types of infection has a different cause and can have different symptoms, making the diagnosis often difficult. Also, more than one type of vaginitis can occur at the same time, with or without symptoms present.

Candida or vaginal yeast infections

Vaginal yeast infections, as they are popularly called, are caused by one of the many species of fungi called candida, which normally live in the vagina in small numbers. Candida is also present in the mouth and digestive system of people, men and women.

Since it is normal for vaginal yeast to be present in a balanced form in the vagina, infections occur when something in the woman’s body disturbs this normal balance. For example, antibiotics used as treatment for another infection can damage that balance. In this case, antibiotics kill the bacteria that normally protect and maintain the balance of vaginal yeast in the vagina. In turn, the vaginal mushrooms grow too large, creating the infection. Other factors that can cause such imbalance include pregnancy, which changes hormone levels, and diabetes, which allows too much sugar in the urine and in the vagina.

symptom

The following are the most common symptoms of candida infection. However, each person can experience them in a different way. Symptoms may include:

  • Thick, white, cottage cheese-like vaginal discharge, watery and usually odorless.
  • Itching and redness of the vulva and vagina.

The symptoms of candida infection may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for diagnosis.

Risk of infection

Although any woman can develop a vaginal yeast infection, the following women may have an increased risk of developing the condition:

  • Women who have recently taken antibiotics.
  • Pregnant women.
  • Women who do not control their diabetes well.
  • Women who use immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Women who use contraceptives with high doses of estrogen.
  • Women who suffer from thyroid or endocrine diseases.
  • Women who undergo corticosteroid therapy, which affects the immune system.

Diagnosis

In addition to a complete medical history and physical and pelvic exams, procedures to diagnose vaginal Candida infections usually include microscopic observation of vaginal discharge.

Treatment

Specific treatment for candida will be determined by your doctor based on the following:

  • Your age, general health,and medical history.
  • How advanced is the disease.
  • The type and severity of symptoms.
  • Your tolerance for certain medications, procedures, or therapies.
  • Expectations for the course of the disease.
  • Your opinion or preference.

Candida treatment may include the following:

  • Anti-fungal vaginal creams and suppositories.
  • Vaginal tablets.
  • Antibiotics.

Bacterial vaginosis

Although vaginal yeast infections are the most frequently discussed vaginal infections, bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common type of vaginosis in women of childbearing age. The cause of this infection is bacteria, not a mushroom. What happens with a bacterial vaginosis infection is that certain species of normal vaginal bacteria grow uncontrollably causing inflammation. The cause of bacterial vaginosis is unknown.

Some women often have vaginal discharge which is normal. And if we take into account the stage of the menstrual cycle, the normal flow can be thick and white, or slippery and transparent. With little odor and without itching or burning. It is important to bathe regularly and maintain proper personal hygiene.

However, if the vaginal discharge changes and has any of the following characteristics, it could be a vaginal, cervical infection or one transmitted by sexual contact; changes in the color, amount, or texture of the stream itself; unpleasant smell; bleeding, dripping blood, or blood-stained discharge and itching and burning from the vagina or vulva.

symptom

The most common symptoms of bacterial vaginosis are listed below. However, each person can experience them in a different way. Symptoms may include:

  • Milky flow, little and constant, or heavy and gray flow.
  • Fishy smell (which may be stronger during intercourse).

The symptoms of bacterial vaginosis may resemble those of other medical conditions. Always consult your doctor for diagnosis. It is important that pregnant women receive timely treatment for this condition, as bacterial vaginosis can cause complications during pregnancy and in some cases has even been associated with premature births.

Treatment

Specific treatment for bacterial vaginosis will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, general health, and medical history.
  • How much the illness has progressed.
  • The type and severity of symptoms.
  • Your tolerance for certain medications, procedures, or therapies.
  • Expectations for the course of the disease.
  • Your opinion or preference.

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by bacteria, hence it is usually treated with antibiotics.

Trichomoniasis infection

Trichomoniasis, or trichomonas, is a disease transmitted by sexual contact. It is caused by the single-celled parasite Trichomonas vaginalis that travels from one person to the other during intercourse. Because most men have no symptoms with trichomoniasis, the infection is often not diagnosed until the woman has the symptoms of vaginitis.

symptom

The most common symptoms of trichomoniasis are listed below. However, each person can experience them in a different way. Symptoms may include:

  • Flowing foamy, often smelling mustard, greenish-yellow.
  • Itching in the area of ​​the vagina and vulva.
  • Burning when urinating.
  • Discomfort in the lower abdomen.
  • Pain during intercourse.

Some women have no symptoms with trichomoniasis. Trichomoniasis symptoms may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for diagnosis.

Treatment

Specific treatment for trichomoniasis will be determined by your doctor based on the following:

  • Your age, general health, and medical history.
  • How much the illness has progressed.
  • The type and severity of symptoms.
  • Your tolerance for certain medications, procedures, or therapies.
  • Expectations for the course of the disease.
  • Your opinion or preference.

Both partners should receive treatment for trichomoniasis to avoid reinfection. Treatment usually includes taking antibiotics. If a woman has more than one sexual partner, each partner (and her partners in turn) should also receive treatment.

It is important that pregnant women receive timely treatment for trichomoniasis, since this type of vaginosis can cause complications during pregnancy and in some cases, it has even been associated with premature births.

Chlamydia infection

Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, and yet it is often undiagnosed. If left untreated, chlamydia often leads to pelvic inflammatory disease, which increases a woman’s risk for infertility, pelvic adhesions, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy.

Chlamydia, which is caused by the bacteria Chlamidia trachomatis, exists in several different strains. This form of vaginitis is most commonly diagnosed in young women ages 18 to 35, who have many sexual partners.

symptom

Unfortunately, many women have no symptoms, prolonging diagnosis and treatment, as well as continuing to spread the disease. The most common symptoms of chlamydia are listed below. However, each person can experience them in a different way. Symptoms may include:

  • Increased vaginal discharge.
  • Little bleeding, especially after intercourse.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis.
  • Burning when urinating.
  • Pus in the urine.
  • Redness and swelling of the urethra and genital lips.

Chlamydia symptoms may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for diagnosis.

Treatment

Specific treatment for chlamydia will be determined by your doctor based on the following:

  • Your age, general health, and medical history.
  • How much the illness has progressed.
  • The type and severity of symptoms.
  • Your tolerance for certain medications, procedures, or therapies.
  • Expectations for the course of the disease.
  • Your opinion or preference.

Chlamydia treatment usually includes taking antibiotics. It is very important that pregnant women who are infected with chlamydia receive treatment, as the consequences for the baby who passes through an infected birth canal are quite severe.

Gonococcal vaginitis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) bacteria can also cause vaginitis, the same bacteria that causes the sexually transmitted disease known as gonorrhea.

symptom

In prepubescent children, the most common infection occurs in the genital tract, presenting vaginitis as the most common symptom. In adolescents who are sexually active, gonococcal infections can occur in combination with other types of vaginal infections, and are similar to gonococcal infections that occur in adults. The most common symptoms of gonococcal infection are listed below. However, each person can experience them in a different way. Symptoms may include:

  • Bloody or yellowish vaginal discharge (in women) or yellowish white discharge from the penis (in men)
  • Pain or burning when urinating (in men and women)
  • Pain or swelling in the testicles.
  • Vaginal bleeding during intercourse.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen (pelvis) during intercourse (in women).

The symptoms of gonococcal infection may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for diagnosis.

Treatment

Specific treatment for gonococcal infection will be determined by your doctor based on the following:

  • Your age, general health, and medical history.
  • The severity of the symptoms.
  • Your tolerance for certain medications, procedures, or therapies.
  • Expectations for the course of the condition.
  • Your opinion or preference.

If left untreated, gonococcal infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which increases a woman’s risk of infertility, pelvic adhesions, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy (in the fallopian tubes). Because of those risks, early treatment of the infection with antibiotics is essential. Treatment of sexual partners is also necessary to prevent reinfection and the spread of the disease.

Viral vaginitis

Viruses are a common cause of vaginitis, and most are spread through sexual contact. One type of virus that causes viral vaginitis is the herpes simplex virus (or simply herpes, its acronym in English is HSV) which has as its main symptom pain in the genital area, associated with injuries and sores. These sores are usually visible on the vulva or in the vagina, but occasionally they appear inside the vagina and can be found only through a pelvic exam. Herpes outbreaks are stimulated by factors such as emotional stress or emotional situations.

Another source of viral vaginitis is human papillomavirus, a virus that is also spread through sexual contact. This virus causes painful warts that grow in the vagina, rectum, vulva, or groin. However, warts cannot always be seen, in which case, the virus is usually detected by a pap smear.

For years, research efforts have focused on the development of an HPV vaccine. Two HPV vaccines have already been developed and clinical trials have been successful. According to a study published in April 2005 , one of the vaccines was 89 percent effective in preventing infections from four particular strains of HPV, and 100 percent effective in preventing cervical cancer, cervical cancer. precancerous lesions and genital warts. This vaccine was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006 . The other vaccine will be sent for regulatory approval in Europe in 2006.

Non-infectious vaginitis

Noninfectious vaginitis usually refers to vaginal irritations without the presence of an infection. Often the infection is due to an allergic reaction or irritation from vaginal sprays or douches, or spermicidal products. It can also be caused by sensitivity to scented soaps, detergents, or softeners.

Other forms of non-infectious vaginitis, “atrophy vaginitis” is usually the result of decreased hormone levels due to menopause, surgical removal of the ovaries, radiation therapy, or even postpartum, especially in the case of women who breastfeed their babies. Lack of estrogen dries out and thins vaginal tissue, and can also cause blood to drip.

symptom

The following are the most common symptoms of noninfectious vaginitis. However, each person can experience them in a different way. Symptoms may include:

  • Vaginal itching
  • Vaginal burning
  • Vaginal discharge (discharge).
  • Pelvic pain (particularly during intercourse).

The symptoms of noninfectious vaginitis may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for diagnosis.

Treatment

Specific treatment for noninfectious vaginitis will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, general health, and medical history.
  • How much the illness has progressed.
  • The type and severity of symptoms.
  • Your tolerance for certain medications, procedures, or therapies.
  • Expectations for the course of the disease.
  • Your opinion or preference.

Treatment of noninfectious vaginitis usually includes estrogen creams or oral tablets, which can restore lubrication and decrease pain and irritation.

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