Sydney

Sydney . (in English Sydney; pronounced: / ˈsɪdni /) is the largest city in Australia , with a population in its metropolitan area close to 4.34 million inhabitants (estimated in 2008 ). It is the capital of the state of New South Wales and was the settlement of the first British colony in Australia. It was founded in 1788 on Sydney Creek by Arthur Phillip, Admiral of the First Fleet of Great Britain , and is the oldest city in the country.

It is located in the southeast of Australia, on the shores of the wide Jackson Bay. The city was built around the port of Jackson, which comprises the port of Sydney. In the city highlights the Sydney Opera House, the Sydney Harbor Bridge and its beaches. The metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks that contain bays and rivers. The city has hosted international sporting events such as the 1938 Commonwealth Games, the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2003 Rugby World Cup final, among others. The main airport serving Sydney is Kingsford Smith International Airport, commonly known as Sydney Airport .

Sydney is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, and is reflected in its role as the main destination for immigrants from Australia. According to a Mercer study on the cost of living, Sydney turned out to be the most expensive city in Australia and the 15th in the world. Sydney also leads the top 10 of the cities with the best quality of life in the world, in another study carried out by the same company in conjunction with The Economist.

Summary

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  • 1 Toponymy
  • 2 History
  • 3 Geography
    • 1 Topography
    • 2 Climate
    • 3 Risk of earthquake
  • 4 Demographics
  • 5 Urbanism
  • 6 Government
  • 7 Economic development
  • 8 Social development
    • 1 Culture
      • 1.1 Entertainment and performing arts
    • 2 Sport
    • 3 Education
    • 4 Media
    • 5 Tourist sites
  • 9 Curiosities
  • 10 Diplomatic offices
  • 11 Sources

Place names

The city was founded in 1788, and takes its name from Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, then the British Home Secretary. The Royal Spanish Academy, in its DPD (which has a normative character), considers it an adapted place name and therefore in Spanish it must be written Sydney, according to its own spelling rules. The residents of Sydney are called Sydneysiders in English. However, there is no name in our language.

History

In 1788 , when the first fleet of convicts brought from the United Kingdom arrived , it is estimated that less than 8,000 aborigines inhabited the regions surrounding the present city. Arthur Phillip founded the penal colony at Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbor. In April 1789 , an apparent outbreak of smallpox killed most of the Aborigines. In addition to smallpox, a series of violent clashes between the settlers and the original population wiped out more Aborigines, leaving few hundred of them by 1820. The then Governor of Australia, Lachlan Macquarie, decided to civilize, Christianize and educate them ‘, and separated them from their clans. The Macquarie era was one of great development, with convicts building roads, bridges, and public buildings. The arrival of immigrants from the British Isles between 1830 and 1850 led to the appearance of houses on the outskirts, and the city expanded rapidly.

The 20 of July of 1852 , Sydney was declared a city, the first of Australia, with Charles H. Chambers the first mayor. The Gold Rush of 1851 attracted many more immigrants to Australia, with Sydney for most their first point of arrival. The arrival of the Industrial Revolution meant the industrialization of the city, which at the beginning of the 20th century exceeded one million inhabitants. Although the Great Depression affected Sydney, this did not prevent the harbor bridge from being completed in 1932 . In recent decades, Sydney has gradually become a cosmopolitan city due to the arrival of Asians and Arabs.

Geography

Topography

The Sydney urban area is located in a coastal basin, which is washed and bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north and the Royal National Park to the south. It sits on a submerging coastline, where the ocean level has risen to flood the deep river valleys (forming an estuary) and carving into the hawkesbury sandstone. Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbor, is one of those estuaries and is the largest natural harbor in the world.

The Sydney area is rarely affected by major earthquakes. The urban area has around 70 ports and beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach. Sydney’s urban area covered 1,687 km² in 2001 . The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area and covers 12,145 km². This area includes the Central Coast, the Blue Mountains and national parks, as well as other undeveloped lands. This makes Sydney the third largest urban agglomeration in the world (with a population of around 3 million) behind Brasilia (14,400 km²) and Tokyo (13,500 km²).

Geographically, Sydney sits between two regions: the Cumberland Plain, a vast region that stretches south and west of the harbor; and the Hornsby Plateau, a sandstone plateau that extends mainly north of the harbor. The parts of the city with the old European development are located in the plane of the southern areas of the port. The North Shore (the north of the Sydney metropolitan area) experienced slower development due to its topography characterized by the presence of hills and its lack of access to the other side of the harbor. The Sydney Harbor Bridge was opened in 1932 and has since connected the North Shore with the rest of the city.

Weather

Sydney has a humid subtropical climate with mild summers and cold winters, with rainfall spread throughout the year. The climate is tempered by the proximity to the sea, and the most extreme temperatures are recorded in the inner western suburbs. The hottest month is January , with an average temperature of 13.6-20.8 ° C, recorded at the Sydney Observatory. There are an average of 14.6 days a year with temperatures over 25 ° C. The maximum temperature recorded was 40.3 ° C on January 14, 1939, at the end of 4 days of a heat wave that shook all of Australia. Winter is cold, with temperatures rarely falling below 0 ° C in coastal areas. Coldest month is july, with an average of 3-11.2 ° C. The lowest minimum recorded in the Observatory was -3.1 ° C.

Precipitation is quite divided between summer and winter, but it is slightly higher during the first half of the year, when the easterly winds dominate. Average annual rainfall, from moderate to low variability, is 1,577 mm , on an average of 258 days a year. The last snowfall in the Sydney city area took place in 1836. However, in July 2008 a fall of rolling snow, soft or hail, mistaken by many of snow , raised the possibility that the fall in 1836 was not really snow.

The city has not been affected by cyclones. The phenomenon of the southern El Niño oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney’s weather patterns: drought and bush burning on the one hand, and storms and floods on the other, associated with opposite phases of the swing. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced fires, especially between 1994 and 2001 – 2002 . These tend to occur during the spring and summer . The city is also prone to heavy hail storms and windstorms. One of these occurred in 1999, very damaging to Sydney and its eastern suburbs. The mass-produced hail storm of at least 9 cm in diameter left A $ 1.7 billion in losses in less than five hours. The city is also prone to flash floods of enormous amounts of rain. The most notable case occurred with the great floods in Sydney that occurred on August 6 , 1986, leaving 357.6 mm of water in the city in 24 hours. This caused significant traffic and damage problems in many parts of the metropolitan area.

The Bureau of Meteorology reported that 2002 to 2005 saw Sydney’s hottest summers since records began in 1859 . The year 2005 had a daily average of maximums of 18.35 ° C; 2004 of 18.39 ° C; 2003 of 17.65 ° C; and 2002 of 17.91 ° ​​C. The daily maximum average between 1859 and 2004 was 16.6 ° C. For the first nine months of 2006 the average temperature was 13.41 ° C. Since November of 2003 , there have been only two months in which the maximum daily average is below average: in March 2005 (about 1 ° C below average) and June2006 (0.7 ° C below average). For its part, the summer of 2007-2008 proved to be one of the best in history. The Bureau of Meteorology reported that it was the coldest summer in 11 years, the wettest summer in the last six years and one of three summers in history where the maximum 26 ° C is not exceeded.

Earthquake risk

Unlike the rest of other cities in the world like New York , Kobe or Istanbul , Sydney is not actually located along a fault between two plates. The country’s seismic activity is the result of pressure from tectonic plates that are actually far from the mainland, meaning that literally any part of Australia is under potential threat and that tremors in this country are extremely difficult to predict. .

Fortunately, most of Australia’s earthquakes, including the ten in 2008 of a magnitude greater than 4.0, have struck in the desolate center of the country, causing minimal damage. But the unpredictability of seismic shaking has led to a false sense of security – building materials in major cities like Sydney are old and corroded and vulnerable, as evidenced by a relatively minor magnitude 5.5 earthquake in 1989 in Newcastle. that caused damages of more than 1,400 million dollars (about 1,000 million euros ). An earthquake near Sydney, which has a population 15 times that of Newcastle, would be far more deadly.

Demography

The people of Sydney are called sydneysiders. Most sydneysiders have British and Irish ancestors, but also Italian, Greek and Asian ancestors. The 2006 census established that the city of Sydney had 4,119,190 inhabitants in the Sydney Statistical Division, of which 3,641,422 lived in the urban area of ​​the city. The city center is the most densely populated area in Australia with 4,023 people per square kilometer. The statistical division is greater in area than urban area.

The census also recorded that 2% of Sydney’s population identified themselves as of indigenous origin and 31.7% were foreign-born. The top three sources of immigrants are the UK , China and New Zealand , followed by Vietnam , Lebanon , India , Italy and the Philippines. The majority in Sydney are native speakers of English, and many of them of a second language, the most common being Arabic (mainly Lebanese), Chinese (mainly Mandarin, Cantonese or Shanghainese), and Italian. Sydney has the seventh-highest percentage of foreign-born population in the world, ahead of highly multicultural cities like London and Paris , but lower than Toronto and Miami .

The median age of a Sydney resident is 34, with 12% of the population over the age of 65. 15.2% of Sydney residents have an educational level equivalent to at least a bachelor’s degree, which is lower than the national average of 19%. In addition, this census reported that 64% of Sydney residents identified themselves as Christian, 14.1% did not identify with any religion, 10.4% left the question blank, 3.9% % were Muslim, 3.7% Buddhist, 1.7% Hindu and 0.9% Jewish.

Town planning

 

Sidney’s main locations

Sydney’s Central Business District (CBD) stretches south three kilometers from Sydney Creek to the Central Station area. Sydney’s CBD is surrounded to the east by a chain of parkland and to the west by Darling Harbor, a lively nightlife and tourist area.

Although the CBD dominates the cultural and financial life of the city today, other districts have undergone extensive radio development since World War II . Along with the North Sydney business district, linked to the CBD by Harbor Bridge, the most significant outer district is Parramatta in the center-west, as well as Penrith in the west, Bondi Junction in the east, Liverpool in the southwest, Chatswood in the north and Hurtsville to the south. Sydney’s skyline has been included among the best in Australia and ranks 25th in the world (ahead of cities like Los Angeles or São Paulo ).

The vast area covered by the city of Sydney is divided into 642 suburbs (for postal and address reasons) and administered by 40 local government areas. There is no single government in the city, but the Government of New South Wales and its agencies have extensive responsibilities in providing metropolitan services. The City of Sydney covers a small area comprising the CBD and its neighboring central suburbs. Additionally, regional descriptions are used informally to conveniently describe large sections of the urban area. These include the Eastern Suburbs, Hills District, Inner West, Canterbury-Bankstown, Northern Beaches, Northern Suburbs, North Shore, St. George, Southern Sydney, South-eastern Sydney, South-western Sydney, Sutherland Shire and Western Sydney. However,

government

Aside from the limited role that the Cumberland County Council played between 1945 and 1964 , there has never been any governmental body for the greater Sydney area. This is divided into different local government areas (known as LGAs). These areas have elected councilors who are responsible for functions delegated to them by the NSW State Government , such as planning or garbage collection.

The City of Sydney itself includes the central business area and some adjoining central suburbs, as well as having expanded in recent years by merging adjacent local government areas such as South Sydney. The City of Sydney is led by an elected mayor (Lord Mayor) and a councilor. The mayor acts, on rare occasions, as the representative of the entire city, such as during the Olympic Games that were held in Sydney in 2000.

Most of the city’s government activities are under the control of the state government. These activities include public transportation, traffic control, police service, education above preschool levels, and infrastructure planning projects. Since a large part of the population of New South Wales lives in Sydney, the government of that state has traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of governmental bodies in the city, which could provoke a confrontation with the state government. For this reason, Sydney has been a focus for the politics of the Federal and State Parliaments. For example, the boundaries of the LGAs of the City of Sydney have been significantly altered by at least

Economic development

The most important economic sectors in Sydney, according to the number of people employed, are business and private services, retail, manufacturing, healthcare and community services. Since the 1980s, jobs have shifted from manufacturing to services and information sectors. Sydney provides about 25 percent of the country’s total GDP. The Australian Securities Exchange and the Reserve Bank of Australia are located in Sydney, as well as the headquarters of 90 banks, more than half of Australia’s leading companies and the regional headquarters of around 500 multinational companies. Fox Studios Australia has large film studios in the city.

The Sydney Futures Exchange (SFE) is one of the largest financial futures and exchange options in Asia and the Pacific, with 64.3 million contracts traded during 2005. It is the 12th largest futures market in the world and the 19th largest including options.

The city has the highest median household income of any major city in Australia (USD 42,559 according to PPP). As of 2004, the unemployment rate in Sydney was 4.9 percent. According to a survey on the cost of living by The Economist, Sydney is the 16th most expensive city in the world, while a study by UBS places Sydney as the 15th city in the world in terms of net income. September 20, 2007Sydney had the highest median house prices of any Australian capital city, at $ 559,000. Sydney also has the highest average rental price of any city in Australia, at $ 450 per week. A report published by the OECD in November 2005 showed that Australia had the highest price level in the Western world for housing compared to rental yields.

Sydney received 7.8 million domestic visitors and 2.5 million international visitors in 2004.

Social development

Culture

Sydney hosts many different festivals and some of Australia’s biggest social and cultural events. These include the Sydney Festival, the country’s largest cultural event, held annually in January; the Biennale of Sydney, created in 1973; the Big Day Out, a music festival (rap) originating in Sydney; the Gay & Lesbian Mardi Gras along Oxford Street; the Sydney Film Festival and many other smaller film festivals such as the short film Tropfest and Flickerfest. The Archibald Prize is organized by the Art Gallery of New South Wales, and is recognized as Australia’s top portrait prize. The Sydney Royal Easter Show is held every year in the Sydney Olympic Park, the Australian Idol final took place on the steps of the Sydney Opera House, and Australian Fashion Week takes place in April / May. Also, Sydney’s New Year’s Eve and Australia Day celebrations are the largest in the country.

Entertainment and performing arts

Sydney has a wide variety of cultural institutions. The iconic Sydney Opera House has five rooms capable of accommodating a wide range of performance styles, and is home to the Australian Opera and the Sydney Symphony. Other places of interest are Sydney Town Hall, City Recital Hall, State Theater, Theater Royal, Sydney Theater and Wharf Theater.

The Sydney Dance Company, under the leadership of Graeme Murphy during the late 20th century, has also gained acclaim. The Sydney Theater Company produces local plays, especially by author David Williamson, classics, and international authors.

In 2007 , the New Theater celebrated 75 years of continuous production in Sydney. Other major theater companies in Sydney include Company B and the Griffin Theater Company. From the 1940s to the 1970s, the Sydney Push, a group of authors and political activists whose members include Germaine Greer, influenced the cultural life of the city.

Sydney’s most popular nightlife venues are at Kings Cross, Oxford Street, Darling Harbor, Circular Quay and The Rocks, where various bars, nightclubs and restaurants are located. The Star City Casino is the only casino in the city and is located around Darling Harbor. There are also several traditional bars, cafes and restaurants in urban areas such as Newtown, Balmain and Leichhardt. The main centers of live music are located in areas such as Newtown and Annandale, the birthplace of groups such as AC / DC, INXS and Midnight Oil. Other areas of the city such as Bondi, Manly, Cronulla and Parramatta, are known for their nightlife.

Sport

Sport in Sydney is an important part of the culture. The area is well endowed with parks and access to water courses, in addition to having many natural areas even within the city center. In the center of Sydney are the Chinese Garden of Friendship, Hyde Park, The Domain and the Royal Botanic Gardens. The metropolitan area contains several national parks, including the Royal National Park, the second oldest national park in the world.

The most popular sport in Sydney is rugby . The city has nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League. Such teams are the Canterbury Bulldogs, Cronulla Sharks, Manly Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters and Wests Tigers. Although the 2008 Rugby League World Cup final was held in Brisbane , Sydney hosted eight championship matches, including a semi-final one.

 

View of the Sydney Olympic Stadium

Sydney is home to Sydney Swans of the Australian Football League and Sydney FC of the A-League. The city is represented by a team called Sydney Spirit in the National Basketball League, by New South Wales Swifts in netball, and is the home base for the New South Wales teams in Super 14 (New South Wales Waratahs) and Sheffield competitions. Shield (New South Wales Blues). Major sporting events, such as the National Rugby League final, are held regularly at the ANZ Stadium , the main stadium of the Sydney 2000 Olympics.. Other events in the city include the start of the Sydney-Hobart Regatta, the Golden Slipper Stakes horse race, and the City to Surf race. Sydney is also home to one of Australia’s premier motorsports circuits, the Eastern Creek International Raceway.

Education

Sydney boasts some of Australia’s leading universities, including the University of Sydney (first in the country, since 1850 , 37th in the world in 2008). There are five other public universities operating primarily in Sydney: Australian Catholic University , Macquarie University , University of New South Wales , University of Technology Sydney and University of Western Sydney . Other secondary universities are the University of Notre Dame Australia and the University of Wollongong.

There are four TAFE (Technical and Additional Education) institutes throughout the city, offering higher level vocational training: the Sydney Institute of Technology, the TAFE North Sydney Institute, the TAFE Western Sydney Institute and the South Western Sydney Institute of TAFE.

Sydney has state, parochial, and public schools. Public schools, including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools, and special schools, are administered by the New South Wales Ministry of Education and Training. There are four state-run educational areas in the city, which together coordinate with the 919 schools. Of the 30 selective schools in the state, 25 are in Sydney.

Media

It has two main newspapers. The Sydney Morning Herald is a large format newspaper, and is the city’s newspaper covering extensive coverage of national and international news, culture and economy. It is also the oldest existing newspaper in Australia, having been published regularly since 1831. The Herald’s competitor, The Daily Telegraph, is owned by the News Corporation. There are also the Sun-Herald and the Sunday Telegraph.

The four commercial television networks (Seven, Nine, Ten) and TVS, as well as the national government broadcasting services (ABC and SBS) have a presence in Sydney. Historically, the networks have been based in the northern neighborhoods, but in the last decade several of them have moved to the city center. Nine has maintained its headquarters north of the harbor at Willoughby. Ten has his studios in a redeveloped section in the downtown Pyrmont neighborhood, as does Seven. ABC has a large headquarters in the Ultimo neighborhood, and SBS has its studios in Artarmon. Foxtel and Optus supply pay television over their cable services to most of the urban area.

The five free networks have provided digital television broadcasts in Sydney since January 2000. Additional services recently introduced include ABC’s second channel (Channel 22), SBS’s world news service, SBS2 (Channel 33), a news, sports and weather channel (Channel 41), ChannelNSW: public and government information (Channel 45), Australian Christian Channel (Channel 46), MacquarieBank TV (Channel 47), SportsTAB (Channel 48), and Expo Home Shopping ( Channel 49), among others.

Many AM and FM radio services broadcast in Sydney. ABC’s local radio station is 702 ABC Sydney (formerly 2BL). The talk radio genre is dominated by 2GB and 2UE, while the popular music stations are Triple M, 2Day FM and Nova 96.9, targeting people under 40 years of age. Vega and MIX 106.5 focuses on groups aged 25 to 54, while WS-FM on those aged 40 to 54 with their music from the 70s and 80s. Triple J (national), 2SER and FBi Radio provide a more alternative, local and independent sound. In addition, in 1997 Telemundo owns a local station in Sydney under the name XZTR-TV, channel 26 and also receives the signal from Canberra and some areas of the eastern regions.

Tourist sites

 

View of the Sydney Opera House

  • Sydney Opera House( Sydney Opera House ) – The Sydney Opera House was built in 1973 . The building has a very famous organic structure in the shape of ‘candles’ with white tiles. The opera has a large concert hall, an opera hall, and other smaller rooms. It is an emblem of the city and its most photographed building.
  • Sydney Harbor Bridge– The bridge was built in 1932 and is the first harbor bridge. It was the longest single arch bridge in the world. You can go up with a guide.
  • The Rocks(The Rocks): the oldest neighborhood in Sydney. There are renovated historic buildings, art galleries, pubs, restaurants, cafes and tourist shops. The Museum of Contemporary Art is in this neighborhood and has a collection of contemporary Australian and international art. It is the most European neighborhood in the city.
  • Sydney beachesare very famous. The most famous and popular are Bondi and Manly. Sydney has more than 50 beaches and they influence the culture of the city. Some beaches are very visited, with parks, walks, surfing, barbecues, markets, restaurants and shops; however, others are secluded and quiet.

 

Entrance to Chinatown in Sydney

  • Chinatown(Chinatown) is in the south of the city center and is the cultural center for the Chinese community in Sydney. This community has lived in this part of the city since the 18th century. Today, it is not a residential center but a cultural and commercial center. There are also many companies from other parts of Asia. Many people of Chinese origin live in other parts of Sydney, such as Chatswood, Strathfield and Hurstville (these neighborhoods also have Chinese shopping centers). In Chinatown, the large market called Paddy’s Market is a hub of activity on the weekends.
  • PaddingtonIt is a beautiful neighborhood located three kilometers east of central Sydney. In it you can find many Victorian houses and an interesting market on Saturdays. There are many independent fashion stores and art galleries on Oxford Street.
  • Darling Harbor(“Port of Darling”) is a port of the city. Today it is a popular tourist site, with restaurants, bars, shops and parks. There are also concerts and other public events. Interesting sites include the Chinese Garden, the National Maritime
  • Museum(National Maritime Museum) and Sydney Aquarium (Sydney Aquarium).
  • University of Sydneywas founded in 1850 and is the oldest university in Australia. It has more than 43,000 students and several old stone buildings in the Gothic style.
  • The Art Gallery of New South Walesis Sydney’s oldest art gallery and has a significant collection of Australian art from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. There are also collections of Asian, European, international and Aboriginal art.
  • Olympic Parkis 20 kilometers west of the city. It is where the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games were held. Stadiums and sports buildings are located in this place. After the Olympic Games, activity in the area has declined.
  • Newtownis a neighborhood three kilometers south of the city center. It is a very interesting and alternative mixed neighborhood. Its main street called King Street has shops and many ethnic restaurants. King Street is estimated to have more than 30 Thai restaurants.
  • Kings Crossin a neighborhood one kilometer east of the city center. It is the red light district (red zone) of the city, but there are also bars and cafes. There are popular hostels designed for young tourists.
  • Royal Botanic Gardenshas many specimens of Australian and foreign trees and plants. The location of the gardens, in a bay of the port, is of great beauty, and from it there are excellent views of the city, the Opera House and the Bridge.
  • Hyde Parkis a medium-sized park in the center of the city. It is very popular with city workers.
  • Centennial Park( Centennial Park ) is a large park in eastern Sydney, very close to Paddington. This one has many aspects like the field. You can see some natural animals there, and you can do many activities.
  • Taronga Zoois the main zoo in the city. Located in Mosman, 15 minutes by ferry from Circular Quay, it has a complete collection of animals from Asia , Africa and Australia .
  • Cathedral of Santa Maria (Sydney)is the catholic cathedral of the city. An imposing and impressive neo-Gothic building located on the eastern bank of Hide Park, seat of the Archdiocese of Sydney and that was not completed until 2000 after three cathedrals destroyed in the 19th century .
  • Australian Museumis the oldest museum in Australia, with an international reputation in the fields of natural history and anthropology . In addition to exhibits, the museum is also involved in researching studies and programs of indigenous communities.
  • Sydney Aquariumis a public aquarium located in the city of Sydney, New South Wales. Found in the eastern part of Darling Harbor , north of the Pyrmont Bridge, it contains a great diversity of Australian aquatic life, with many endemic species.

Curiosities

  • The city has approximately four million inhabitants. Most are of British or Irish descent. Many Asians also live in this city, particularly in Chinatown. Sydney is not the capital of Australia, but it is the capital of New South Wales and the financial and corporate center of the country.
  • Botany Bay (in Sydney), was the place where the first European ships arrived in 1788 . Formerly the city was a British penal colony.
  • Sydney has the Sydney Opera House which is one of the most famous works of contemporary architecture. The port bridge, with a single arch 500 meters long, is the other symbol of the city.
  • Every summer forest fires are repeated in the national parks that are close to the city.

Diplomatic offices

There are no embassies in Sydney because it is not the capital of Australia. However, 69 countries have consular representations in the city. The Spanish-speaking countries with diplomatic offices in Sydney are: Argentina , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Cuba , Ecuador , Spain , Honduras , Peru , the Dominican Republic and Uruguay .

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