Sulfur dichloride . According to systematic nomenclature also known by the stock nomenclature as sulfur (II) chloride , and by the traditional nomenclature as Sulfur Chloride, Sulfur Monochloride, Diazufre Dichloride, Thiosulfurous Dichloride.
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- 1 Structure
- 2 Obtaining
- 3 Physical properties
- 4 Chemical properties
- 5 Use
- 6 Information on health hazards
- 1 Route of exposure
- 2 First aid measures
- 7 References
- 8 Sources
- 9 External link
It is a covalent compound formed by angular molecules containing two atoms of chlorine bonded to an atom of sulfur .The sulfur presents hybridization sp 3 and has two pairs of nonbonding electrons . Given their geometry and the difference in electronegativity between chlorine and sulfur, they are molecules with a marked polar character and therefore will present a relatively high boiling point (60ºC).
It is produced by chlorination of elemental sulfur or S 2 Cl 2 disulfide dichloride . Separation of SCl 2 from S 2 Cl 2 is possible via distillation with [[PCl 3 ]] to form an azeotrope of 99% purity.
Molar mass sulfur dichloride 103.0 g / mol, at room temperature, is an oily liquid , ranging from amber to yellowish red, that emits strong, nauseating, irritating and pungent odorous vapors, is a substance soluble in water . It ignites from 118º C. The vapor is denser than the air.
During the combustion of sulfur dichloride, toxic and corrosive fumes are released, decomposing into chlorine (toxic gas) and solid sulfur :
SCl 2 (l) + O 2 (g) = Cl 2 (g) + S 8 (s)
Reacts with water giving rise to hydrogen chloride and other sulfur compounds . In addition to being unstable against water, it is unstable with regard to its dissociation from di- sulfur dichloride and chlorine :
2SCl 2 = S 2 Cl 2 + Cl 2
PCl 3 stabilizes SCl 2 and prevents its dissociation.
S 2 Cl 2 can be obtained by reacting chlorine with sulfur producing S 2 Cl 2
S 8 + 4Cl 2 = 4S 2 Cl 2 ; ΔH = −58.2 kJ / mol
which will be in balance with SCl 2 . By displacing this balance with excess chlorine and catalyzing with Fe we will be able to maximize the amount of SCl 2 obtained and minimize that of S 2 Cl 2 .
S 2 Cl 2 = 2SCl 2 ; ΔH = −40.6 kJ / mol
The addition of [[Cl 2 ]] to S 2 Cl 2 is considered to produce, by mixed valency , the intermediate product Cl 3 S-SCl. SCl 2 even undergoes a new chlorination to give SCl 4 , but this species is unstable near room temperature. It is likely that there are several S x Cl 2 , where x> 2.
SCl 2 reacts with [[H 2 S]] to give “higher” hydrogen sulfides like H 2 S 3 .
SCl 2 + H 2 S = S 3 H 2
Sulfur dichloride is used, sulfur dyes , insecticides and synthetic rubber, it is used to harden softwoods. Also as an intermediate and chlorination agent in the manufacture of organic substances.
Occasionally used in organic syntheses, one application is its addition to 1,5-Cyclooctadiene to give a dicyclic thioether . In an unfortunately known reaction, SCl 2 added to ethylene gives sulfur mustard, one of the two types of mustard gas- type chemical weapons (which is not a gas, but a liquid), is a major reagent in the preparation of related SN compounds with S 4 N 4 , in addition to being a precursor of [[SF 4 ]].
Information on health hazards
Sulfur dichloride is a toxic liquid by contact and ingestion. Its vapors are very toxic by inhalation.
Sulfur dichloride can affect the body if it is inhaled or comes into contact with the skin or eyes. It can also affect the body if ingested.
Effects of overexposure
The effects due to inhalation of the vapors produce intense irritation of the mucous membranes with itchy eyes, tearing, sneezing, cough, nausea, vomiting, headaches, burning sensation in the chest and respiratory distress. Acute pulmonary edema and death can occur. Pulmonary edema can begin hours after contact with the vapors and is markedly aggravated by physical exertion. Exposures at 150 ppm for 1 minute can be fatal.
In contact with the skin or the eyes due to its strong irritant capacity, it causes skin burns with pain and the presence of blisters. Deep corneal ulcers can occur in the eyes.
Ingestion of sulfur dichloride can cause burns to the mouth and pharynx with burning and intense pain. Nausea and spontaneous vomiting. Sore and abdominal pain and diarrhea, shock or collapse.
In the event of a fire, toxic and irritating fumes (or gases) are released. In contact with metals , flammable hydrogen gas can be released , intense heating can cause an increase in pressure with the risk of bursting.
First aid measures
In case of:
Inhalation: Move the person where there is fresh air, removed from the contaminated area, shelter you and keep you on bedrest in Half – upright position If breathing difficultly should assist with ambu and mask with oxygen in the proportion that required the case , in addition to symptomatic treatment with bronchodilator sprays in case of bronchospasms, corticosteroids and antibiotics. Diazepam in case of seizures and / or agitation, in case of cardio-respiratory arrest apply resuscitation techniques
Skin contact: Abundant and continuous shower for at least 10 minutes of watermild soapy then remove contaminated clothing and rinse again. Post-treat burns. Apply pain relievers. If the injury is maintained, seek medical assistance immediately.
Eye Contact: Flush with water in an eyewash for at least 15 minutes, separating the eyelids. If damage persists, refer to a medical center promptly.
” ‘Ingestion:’ ” Wash the mouth with albumin water (egg white), expel it once rinsed and then swallow abundant albumin water in very short drinks. . DO NOT induce vomiting, Provide medical assistance immediately, in case of massive intakes, perform endoscopy, aspirating gastric contents. Symptomatic treatment.
Contraindications to treatment .
Do not induce vomiting or gastric lavage. Do not apply mouth-to-mouth breathing to avoid contaminating the affected person.