The plum or plum . It is native to the Caucasus , Persia and Anatolia . It is an herbaceous plant , which belongs to the Rosaceae family and to the Prunus genus . It needs a temperate climate, but it perfectly resists the cold. There are European, Japanese and American varieties.
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- 1 Taxonomy
- 1 Scientific name
- 2 Combinations for this basonym
- 3 Synonymy
- 4 Common name
- 2 Features
- 3 growing areas
- 4 Benefits properties
- 1 Intestine and joints
- 5 Plum passes
- 1 Obtaining the prune
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
- Prunus domestica L. 
Combinations for this basonym
- Prunus sativa subsp. domestica (L.) Rouy & Camus 
- Prunus communis Huds.
- Prunus domestica subsp. oeconomica (Borkh.) CK Schneid.
- Prunus domestica var. damascena L.
- Prunus domestica var. damascena Ser.
- Prunus sativa subsp. domestica (L.) Rouy & Camus 
- Druparia insititia Clairv.
- Prunus communis Huds.
- Prunus communis subsp. domestica (L.) Syme in Sm.
- Prunus communis var. domestica (L.) Huds.
- Prunus domestica (L.) B. Boivin
- Prunus domestica subsp. insititia (L.) Fiori & Paol.
- Prunus domestica subsp. domestic L.
- Prunus domestica subsp. italica var. claudiana
- Prunus domestica L.
- Prunus domestica var. syriaca (Mirabela)
- Prunus insititia L.
- Prunus oeconomica Borkh.
- Prunus oeconomica var. domestica (L.) Borkh.
- Prunus sativa Rouy & EGCamus in Rouy & Foucaud 
This delicate fruit is produced by the plum ( Prunus domestica ), a tree native to the Asian continent that is between 6 and 10 meters high, and has dark bluish-looking bark; Likewise, it is known to shine in its maximum splendor during the warm and rainy seasons, since in autumn and winter it loses many of its leaves and has scant foliage with a nostalgic brown hue. The best time or season to eat them is from April to mid- September .
Plum is a fruit capable of satisfying the most diverse and demanding tastes since, according to estimates, there are between 300 and 400 varieties of it throughout the world. However, experts consider that all this diversity can be classified into four main families:
- They have an oval shape and dark skin that goes from blue to purple, almost reaching black; they have a hard pulp and a strong flavor. They are used to make sweets and are the most useful for making dried prunes.
- They are small, very juicy, with yellow skin with light reddish touches and firm flesh; They have an acidic flavor that they preserve even when cooked.
- Sweet and of regular consistency, they are frequently used in desserts, preserves and ice cream .
- Claudia or queen. They have green skin and yellow flesh, and although they are not very attractive to the eye, they have a lot of juice and they are delicious.
The plum was introduced in Europe thanks to the established exchange between Romans and Arabs, and until the 19th century its cultivation was restricted to local consumption in several nations in the Mediterranean area , such as Greece , France and Spain , although the latter was in charge of bringing it to Latin America . Years later, the modern cultivation techniques instituted in Italy and the United States began to favor their production and trade significantly, so that their presence in the human diet has become notable from the second half of the 20th century .
A particular species, the Mexican plum or jocote (Spondias purpurea), oval fruit of approximately 3 centimeters, red or yellow skin with juicy pulp and bittersweet flavor that was known since pre-Hispanic times in Central America , Brazil , Peru , Colombia and the central areas and southern Mexico , and which to date is still one of the most consumed fruits in states like Oaxaca and Chiapas , where it is used to make traditional dishes and desserts, alcoholic beverages and fresh waters. It should be mentioned that despite its name it does not belong to the same family of Asian plums, and that its consumption continues to be local, mainly.
Juicy, noble and cultivated practically all over the world, it has seduced humans for centuries due to its pleasant taste, but also because it has proven useful both for people with constipation problems and for those who must follow low- salt diets. . Plums are very versatile, since they can be used in cake , jelly , jam and jelly , but they can also accompany various dishes made with meat , salad and crepe; Its juice can be fermented to prepare some typical Eastern European alcoholic beverages, or included in some wines to give them more aroma, body and fruit flavor.
Furthermore, this small fruit has high nutritional value due to the compounds it contains; in principle, it provides sugar and carbohydrate necessary for the body to have energy, as well as significant amounts of vitamin A , which is beneficial for eyesight, muscles and child growth. It is estimated that one serving of 130 grams of plum (approximately five pieces) contributes about 20% of the daily requirement of vitamin C , nutrient stops cell aging, protects against various types of cancer and enhances the functions of the immune system , that that protects against diseases.
Regarding minerals, the plum is rich in potassium , which stimulates the elimination of toxins through the urine and is essential for good cell function and the transmission of nerve impulses, in addition to helping to maintain adequate heart rate and blood pressure at normal levels. It also has considerable amounts of calcium and magnesium , which are essential for the formation of bones and the proper functioning of muscles .
The husk of these fruits is a considerable source of carotenoids and flavonoids , powerful antioxidants that prevent cholesterol from depositing on the walls of blood vessels and, therefore, prevent the emergence and evolution of degenerative circulatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis , in which Fat deposits form on the walls of the arteries.
To get the best out of these qualities, it is worth following some tips for your best purchase and conservation:
- Those plums that are covered with a kind of white powder should be selected, since this indicates that they are fresh.
- Choose fruits that are firm to the touch, without bumps, stains or bruises.
- Plums ripen very quickly, so they should be kept in the refrigerator. They can also be frozen, although it should be taken into account that dark-colored plums are the ones that best support this preservation method without losing properties.
- If the plums you buy are still green, they should be left to ripen at room temperature for 2-3 days, and then stored in the refrigerator.
- To know if the fruit is ripe, just press the pulp gently and watch it sink slightly.
- Before consuming them, it is advisable to wash them well with water.
- Vitamins: A, B1, B2, E.
- Minerals: Phosphorus, Iron , Sulfur .
- Other: Pectin, fructose , Niacin , Theanine , Riboflavin .
Intestine and joints
Due to the minerals it contains, the plum is widely recommended in those who must have a low-salt diet, such as in those who suffer from circulatory diseases, in the kidney or liver . This is because potassium, magnesium and calcium activate the secretion of urine, while helping to eliminate excess sodium chloride in the bloodstream. It is known that the plum improves the elimination of uric acid , which is a substance that when accumulated in the joints causes the formation of urate crystals, which are responsible for episodes of bothersome inflammation in the extremities, they occur in cases of arthritis or gout. Through various observations, it has been concluded that the habitual consumption of this food achieves significant improvements in patients, in addition to that, together with other nutritional recommendations, it prevents painful episodes.
The prune, food with a laxative effect , improves intestinal and diuretic transit , favors the emission of urine, whose properties were known since ancient times and which today continues to be highly effective both in the fight against constipation and in preventing diseases in the large intestine , including colon cancer , due to its high percentage of fiber.
The best dried or dehydrated prunes are those that look dark and shiny, while feeling soft and meaty; They should not be hard, sticky or excessively sweet due to the risk of being cloying when cooked. The recipes where they are most used are confectionery, but they also go well with savory dishes, especially those made with rabbit , lamb , pork and poultry meat., giving them a pleasantly sweet touch that at the same time accentuates the flavor of the main ingredients. Finally, it has been established that the best way to consume plum as a remedy against constipation is to soak 6 to 12 of these fruits at night and eat them at breakfast. To increase their effectiveness they can be mixed with a little honey and a couple of tablespoons of flaxseeds , linseed, also soaked in water overnight. It should not be forgotten that the consumption of liquids is important, eight glasses a day, to achieve good intestinal transit, and that the use of this food must be supervised by a doctor or nutritionist .
Getting the plum passes
Obtaining the prune requires a series of specific steps: first, the fresh fruits must be washed, sometimes they are detached from their stone and husk, and then placed on a rack covered with a cloth where the water can drain off . The storage place must be ventilated and shaded, in addition to the plums must be turned several times during the 2 or 3 days that the drying process lasts. Subsequently, they are baked for several minutes at 70º centigrade and allowed to cool and rest for 12 hours. Immediately afterwards, they are kept in hermetic jars to guarantee their conservation.