The pituitary gland is located at the base of the skull , and is contained in an area known as “sella turcica” . It is a gland with internal secretion , or endocrine . The saddle turcica is a bone fossa of the body of the sphenoid bone . It is so called because it refers to a well-defined depression in the front and rear by evident margins of the part of the upper face of the sphenoid bone. This depression vaguely resembles the saddle of the riders , hence the name.
What is the pituitary gland?
The pituitary gland is a small gland , but its weight is slightly more than half a gram. It is a gland that emits hormones , which in turn allow the activity of the thyroid and adrenal glands , and other internal secretion glands that are greatly important for carrying out many of the body’s activities.
The pituitary is composed of two portions: the neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary (pars nervosa, or infundibular process) that derives from the hypothalamus , and the adenohypophysis (also called pre-pituitary or anterior pituitary ), which derives from the epithelium of the vault of the oral cavity. and in turn formed by a tuber part, full of capillaries , a distal part (prevalent) and an intermediate part.
The intermediate part of the adenohypophysis consists of cells of only one type, responsible for the production of the melanotropin hormone (MSH) . Different types of cells, on the other hand, make up the tubal part and especially the distal part of the pituitary gland, as these cells are responsible for producing and emitting hormones that control the functions of growth , metabolism and genital . These hormones are as follows: luteinizing hormone or LH, follicle stimulating hormone or FSH, thyrotropic hormone or TSH, somatotropic hormone or GH, adenocyrticocotropic hormone or ACTH, luteotropic hormone or LTH.
The creation and introduction into the bloodstream of hormones by the adenohypophysis is under the control of particular release factors produced by the hypothalamus.
A part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for regulating numerous body functions is the neurohypophysis . This gland functions as a reservoir for the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin . The antidiuretic hormone , as its name says, has the function of limiting diuresis . In addition, oxytocin regulates uterine contractions during childbirth.
Through the pituitary pedicle the pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus, with which it composes the hypothalamic-pituitary system or axis .
What is the pituitary gland used for?
The hypothesis is delegated to the secretion of hormones which, in turn, allow the activity of other glands to be secreted internally, fundamental for the execution of many activities of the organism . It is therefore the main endocrine gland in the human body. The hormones produced by the pituitary , in fact, favor the product generated by the latter develops, in turn, an inhibiting action on the creation of hormones by the pituitary , generating a virtuous balance (feedback mechanism).