Physical person

A natural person or natural person is any human being who, by virtue of being one, has a series of legal rights and obligations towards society.

The definition of natural person is born with the evolution of the right itself over the years and the creation of a concept of individual and citizen. Another way to define this type of person in the field of law is as a natural person or person of real existence. It is the law that establishes the regulatory framework for the rights and obligations of natural persons.

Natural persons have the capacity to carry out commercial, political and social activities within their social environment, using legislation to defend their rights and interests as an individual.

Alternatively, there is the concept of legal entity , which grants certain rights and obligations to a person or group of people. For example, a corporation is a legal entity, which has certain rights and obligations in the same way that a natural person could have. It is possible that a natural person may in turn be considered as a legal person. An example of this is the existence of sole proprietorships and the appearance of modalities such as that of the self-employed worker.

Characteristics of a natural person

As mentioned, natural persons have a series of rights and obligations that define them as such:

  • Carrying out economic activities in a regulated manner and in exchange for a consideration.
  • Acquisition of debt securities, assumption of credits and loans …
  • Tax declaration of your income or assets as a natural person. A striking case is the existence of taxes such as personal income tax.
  • Right to recognition by the State of health rights, voting and other social benefits such as Social Security.

It is necessary to indicate that the rights and obligations of the natural person are acquired at the same birth. In other words, the mere fact of being born implies having this legal recognition in practically all the legal systems of the world.

At the same time, the loss of this series of characteristics is established with the death of each person.

Other characteristics of natural persons

Natural persons can make new commitments and rights, according to each specific legal framework.

In this sense, natural persons are usually defined through the possession of one or more nationalities, a name recognized and officially registered, their marital status or the heritage that they have and legally declare.


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