Physical anthropology is part of the science of anthropology which studies the understanding of the history of the occurrence of various colors of human beings in terms of their body features, which uses as material for research body characteristics, both those born (phenotypes) such as skin color, hair color and shape, skull index, face shape, eye color, nose shape, height and body shape, and deep (genotype) , such as the frequency of blood types and so on.
Humans on this earth can be classified into certain groups based on similarities about some body features. The body’s characteristics are found in most of the individuals, although each individual has different body characteristics. Such groups of people in anthropology are called races .
The understanding of the various colors of the world’s races was achieved by scholars, especially by carrying out various methods of classification of the various colors. Part of anthropology is often called anthropological in a special sense or Somatology .
Physical anthropology is developing rapidly by conducting studies of human origins and development. Based on Darwin’s writings “The Origin of Species” , humans were originally monkeys, because living things underwent evolution. Anthropology wants to prove by conducting various studies on apes and monkeys around the world. Physical anthropology studies humans in terms of biology, for example, body shape, hair color, skin color, and others.
As for the sciences that include physical Anthropology, namely:
- Paleoanthropology: Part of physical anthropology that examines the origin or occurrence and development of human beings. The object of research is human fossils (remnants of a petrified human body) found in the layers of the earth.
- Somatology: The part of physical anthropology that examines the variation or diversity of the human race through the characteristics of the whole human body (traits of genotypes and phenotypes).
a. By making observations about the physical differences between the Mongoloid race and the Negroid race . Research and observations carried out by looking at differences in physical characteristics possessed by each race, among others, seen from the color of the skin, hair color and shape, skull index, face shape, eye color, nose shape, height and body shape, as well as deep (genotypic), such as the frequency of blood types and so on.
b. One researcher wants to make a descriptive integration of the Ngada ethnic culture in Central Flores, he collected material about the life of the people and culture of the Ngada people now, but in addition he also paid attention to the fossils found in Flores. And he pays attention to the characteristics of the race of the Ngada people and other ethnic groups around him, in Flores, he also processes them into materials, artifacts that are dug up or found in the Central Flores area. By processing all of these materials together, he tries to reach an understanding of the origin and development history of the Ngada tribe.