The communication between the animals can be accomplished in various ways, whether signs visual , sound and even chemicals . In chemical communication, substances called semiochemicals are secreted . When the action of these substances occurs between individuals of the same species , we call these substances pheromones .
- What is a pheromone?
Pheromone can be considered a chemical messenger among individuals and has several functions, such as demarcating territory, warning of predators and marking trails.
There are several types of pheromones, which can have an almost immediate action on the behavior of the receptor of this substance or can trigger physiological or neuroendocrine changes that will cause changes in the physiology or behavior of the receptor.
We can observe an example of immediate action on the pheromone released by forage ants when they detect a food source. They mark their way back to the anthill with the pheromone and this guides the rest of the group to that source.
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- Pheromones and sexual attraction
Pheromones are also related to sexual attraction . The females of the silkworm, for example, release the pheromone called Bombicol to attract the males for mating. The males have large antennae with thousands of olfactory receptors that perceive the presence of the female from miles away.
Curiosity: As pheromones act in the reproductive process, several studies are carried out on pheromones of some species, mainly insects, so that they can be used in pest management.