Today we are going to study one of the branches of Physics of the atmosphere, Meteorology, which as we all know is in charge of studying the state of the weather, the atmospheric environment and the phenomena that occur, which are governed by physical laws.
Although closely linked, meteorology and climatology are two different branches. Meteorology is in charge of studying atmospheric changes using air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind or rainfall; and its objective is to be able to predict the weather or make a forecast.
On the other hand, climatology studies the climate and its variations over time. Although they use the same parameters, they have different objectives, since the climatology studies the climatic characteristics in the long term.
To study any concept, it is always necessary to go back to the historical events that gave rise to it.
Already the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians made observations of the changes that occurred in the atmosphere, as well as of the movements of the stars (although we should not confuse meteorology with astronomy). But the term meteorology as we know it is due to the title of a work written by Aristotle around 340 BC “Meteorological”. In this work Aristotle makes some observations about atmospheric phenomena and reveals the presence of water vapor in the air. However, it will not be until the 17th century when the atmosphere begins to be studied. Therefore, we can consider it a fairly modern science.
The progress in the study of this science that allowed us to know the answer to questions such as: why is the rain? they were due, among other things, to the appearance of more precise instruments. Galileo Galilei built the thermometer in 1607, years later, in 1643, Torriceli invented the barometer, and Robert Hooke created an apparatus for measuring wind speed, the anemometer. The last device that was invented to complete the study of the atmosphere was the hair hygrometer, known as a hygrometer, which measures the humidity of the air; It was created in 1780 by Horace de Saussure.
The advance in meteorology occurs during the First World War, the meteorological network spreading throughout the world. And from 1937 to 1939 the elaboration of meteorological maps and daily forecasts began thanks to a meteorological ship.
Currently, weather forecasting is due to the use of radiosondes, weather stations, satellites, and weather radars.
To be able to carry out the weather predictions that we see on television, newspapers, internet and even mobile applications; Data is collected from weather stations, ships and satellites. This data collection process is repeated several times a day and they are analyzed and exploited; and that they will help us to predict rains, storms or anticyclones.
One of the elements obtained by the satellite photographs are the isobar maps like the one we can see in the image.
To be able to interpret it, we must first take into account where the High Pressures or Anticyclones are, denoted by the letter A; that let us know that the weather will be clear. Next, we will look for the center, since they expel the air from the center to the edges, for example, if you were in Africa, it would send warm and dry air, which could cause a heat wave; but if, on the other hand, it is in northern Europe, there can be a cold snap and very low temperatures.
Then we will look at the Low Pressures or Storms, denoted by a B; which attract strong winds and fronts, which produce a variable time.
Both storms and anticyclones are represented by isobars.