Literary Criticism Course code LNG-603 Study Notes At GCUF

Literary Criticism Course code LNG-603 Study Notes At GCUF.If you are a student pursuing a course in literary criticism, specifically the course code LNG-603 at GCUF (Government College University Faisalabad), these study notes will prove to be invaluable.

Table of Contents

Literary Criticism Course code LNG-603 Study Notes At GCUF

Oscar Wilde: The Critic as an Artist (Norton, 900-913)


In the world of literature, few authors have left as lasting an impact as Oscar Wilde. Known for his wit, flamboyance, and unique perspectives, Wilde’s works continue to captivate readers to this day. One such work is “The Critic as an Artist,” which is featured in the Norton Anthology of English Literature, pages 900-913. This essay explores Wilde’s ideas on the nature of criticism and its relationship to art.

The Nature of Criticism

In “The Critic as an Artist,” Oscar Wilde delves into the role of the critic and its correlation to the artist. According to Wilde, the true critic is an artist themselves, for criticism is an art form in its own right. Wilde argues that for criticism to be valuable, it should not simply analyze and judge a work of art, but it should also provide a unique perspective, infused with creativity and imagination.

The Importance of Individuality

One of the key themes in Wilde’s essay is the importance of individuality in both the critic and the artist. He believes that true critics should not conform to established norms or popular opinions, but instead, they should embrace their own eccentricities and idiosyncrasies. Wilde states, “The highest criticism is more creative than creation.”

The Relationship Between the Critic and the Artist

Wilde asserts that the critic and the artist are intertwined and rely on each other for their respective creations. The artist creates a work of art, and the critic interprets it, giving it meaning and significance. Without the critic, the artist’s work may go unnoticed or misunderstood. Similarly, without the artist, the critic would have nothing to analyze or critique.

Paradox in Criticism

Wilde’s essay also explores the concept of paradox in criticism. He believes that paradox is the hallmark of a great critic, as it is through the artful use of paradoxical statements that new ideas and perspectives can be unearthed. For Wilde, paradox allows for a deeper understanding and appreciation of art.

The Role of Society and Its Impact on Criticism

Wilde argues that society plays a crucial role in shaping criticism. He suggests that society often attempts to limit the freedom of the critic and force them into conformity, stifling their artistic expression. Wilde challenges this notion, advocating for the critic’s independence and detachment from societal constraints. He believes that true criticism should be fearless and unapologetic, not swayed by public opinion.


Oscar Wilde’s “The Critic as an Artist” serves as a thought-provoking exploration of the relationship between the critic and the artist. Through his unique insights and playful language, Wilde challenges conventional notions of criticism and encourages individuality and creativity in the practice of analyzing and interpreting art. By delving into the pages 900-913 of the Norton Anthology of English Literature, readers can gain a deeper understanding of Wilde’s views on criticism and its connection to artistic expression. As Wilde famously said, “Art is the most intense mode of individualism that the world has known,” and his essay continues to stand as a testament to this belief.

Examining Plotinus: On the Intellectual Beauty (Norton, 174-185)

In this article, we will delve into Plotinus’ essay “On the Intellectual Beauty” from the Norton anthology. This powerful and thought-provoking piece explores the concept of intellectual beauty and its significance in the realm of philosophy. By examining Plotinus’ ideas and insights, we aim to unravel the complexities of this profound topic.

Understanding Intellectual Beauty

Defining Intellectual Beauty

At its core, intellectual beauty refers to a type of beauty that transcends the physical realm. It embodies concepts such as truth, goodness, and harmony, which are not limited to sensory perceptions. Intellectual beauty is the beauty of ideas and concepts, originating from the intellect rather than the senses.

The Power of Intellectual Beauty

Intellectual beauty possesses a unique power that goes beyond the surface level. It has the ability to ignite profound emotions, inspire creativity, and provoke deep philosophical contemplation. Unlike physical beauty, which is fleeting and subject to societal standards, intellectual beauty is timeless.

Plotinus’ Philosophical Insights

Plotinus’ Perspective on Intellectual Beauty

In his essay “On the Intellectual Beauty,” Plotinus presents his philosophical musings on the subject. He argues that true beauty is not merely found in the physical world but rather in the realm of ideas. According to Plotinus, intellectual beauty emanates from the divine and serves as a bridge between the material and spiritual realms.

The Hierarchy of Beauty

Plotinus proposes a hierarchy of beauty, with intellectual beauty residing at the highest level. He suggests that the physical world is a mere reflection or imitation of this higher form of beauty. Intellectual beauty exists independently of the physical world and serves as a guiding force for individuals seeking enlightenment.

The Path to Intellectual Beauty

According to Plotinus, the path to intellectual beauty requires a deep introspection and detachment from the material world. By detaching oneself from sensory distractions and focusing on the higher truths and ideas, one can attain a profound understanding of intellectual beauty. This journey involves contemplation, self-reflection, and philosophical inquiry.

Intellectual Beauty and the Divine

For Plotinus, intellectual beauty is inherently connected to the divine. He argues that the ultimate source of intellectual beauty is the One, an eternal and transcendent entity. This concept resonates with the idea that beauty is a reflection of the divine order and harmony present in the universe.

The Relevance of Plotinus’ Ideas

Intellectual Beauty in Modern Society

Plotinus’ thoughts on intellectual beauty hold significance even in contemporary times. In today’s fast-paced and materialistic world, there is a growing need to reconnect with the deeper aspects of life. Intellectual beauty provides a pathway to nourish the soul, foster creativity, and find solace amidst the chaos.

Expanding Our Perception of Beauty

Plotinus’ ideas challenge the conventional notion of beauty, which often revolves around external appearances. By embracing intellectual beauty, individuals can expand their understanding of beauty and appreciate the profound significance of ideas, knowledge, and wisdom.

Seeking a Deeper Understanding

In a world saturated with superficiality, Plotinus’ exploration of intellectual beauty encourages individuals to seek a deeper understanding of the world and themselves. By engaging in philosophical discourse and contemplating the nature of intellectual beauty, individuals can embark on a transformative journey of self-discovery and personal growth.


Plotinus’ essay “On the Intellectual Beauty” offers profound insights into the concept of beauty that surpasses physical appearances. Intellectual beauty, according to Plotinus, emanates from the divine and influences our perception of the world. By embracing intellectual beauty, individuals can expand their understanding of true beauty and engage in a transformative journey of self-discovery. Through contemplation and philosophical inquiry, we can unlock the power of intellectual beauty and nurture our souls in an increasingly fast-paced world.

The Art of Poetry: A Comparative Analysis of Horace’s ArsPoetica and David Hume’s Of the Standard of Taste


Literature and art have played a significant role in shaping human civilization throughout history. Ancient philosophers and scholars have contemplated the essence and standards of these creative expressions. This article aims to explore the thoughts of two prominent thinkers, Horace and David Hume, on the subject of poetry and taste. We will delve into their respective works, Horace’s ArsPoetica and Hume’s Of the Standard of Taste, to understand their perspectives and analyze the similarities and differences between their ideas.

Horace: ArsPoetica (Norton, 124-135)

Horace, the Roman poet and philosopher, provides valuable insights into the art of poetry in his work ArsPoetica. He emphasizes the importance of both structure and content in creating a successful piece of poetry. Horace suggests that poetry should be both instructive and entertaining, while maintaining a balance between novelty and familiarity. His work can be seen as a guide for aspiring poets, offering them principles and techniques to improve their craft.

Principles of Structure and Form

Horace advocates for a harmonious blend of different poetic elements. He believes that poetry should possess order and coherence, as well as maintain a proper balance between simplicity and complexity. By utilizing vivid imagery, effective metaphors, and skillful wordplay, poets can create a lasting impact on their readers. Horace encourages poets to experiment with various poetic forms, such as lyric poetry, epic poetry, and satirical poetry, to showcase their creativity.

The Role of Poetry in Society

According to Horace, poetry serves as a reflection of society and has the power to influence and educate its readers. He emphasizes the need for poetry to convey moral messages and teach virtue to its audience. Horace argues that good poetry should possess a didactic quality, enabling readers to learn important life lessons. By blending entertainment and instruction, poets can capture the attention of their audience and foster a positive impact on society.

David Hume: Of the Standard of Taste (Norton, 486-499)

David Hume, an influential philosopher of the Scottish Enlightenment, explores the concept of taste in his work Of the Standard of Taste. He seeks to understand the subjective nature of aesthetic judgments and discusses the role of individuals in determining what is considered tasteful or beautiful. Hume’s work challenges the idea of objective standards of taste, highlighting the importance of individual preferences and sentiments.

The Subjectivity of Taste

Hume argues that taste is highly subjective, varying from person to person based on their individual experiences, emotions, and cultural backgrounds. He rejects the idea of a universal standard of taste, asserting that beauty and taste are determined by personal sentiment and not by any objective criteria. According to Hume, individuals are qualified to judge and appreciate art based on their unique perceptions and emotions.

Emotional Connection and Delicacy

Hume proposes that a person’s emotional response to art is crucial in determining their taste. He introduces the concept of “delicacy of taste,” which refers to an individual’s heightened sensitivity to aesthetic qualities. Those with a delicate taste possess a keener ability to discern beauty and appreciate finer artistic nuances. Hume suggests that individuals with this refined taste have a greater capacity for experiencing the sublime and finding pleasure in art.

Cultivating and Expanding Taste

While Hume acknowledges the subjectivity of taste, he also believes that taste can be developed and refined through exposure to various forms of art. By engaging with different artistic styles, genres, and cultures, individuals can broaden their perspectives and enhance their ability to appreciate diverse forms of creativity. Hume encourages individuals to continually explore new artistic experiences to nurture and expand their personal taste.

A Comparative Analysis

Both Horace’s ArsPoetica and Hume’s Of the Standard of Taste provide valuable insights into the world of poetry and aesthetic appreciation. While Horace focuses on the structure, content, and didactic role of poetry, Hume delves into the subjective nature of taste, emphasizing individual sentiment and emotional connection.
Horace emphasizes the importance of form and structure in creating impactful poetry, whereas Hume highlights the role of personal experience and emotion in determining taste. Despite their different approaches, both philosophers emphasize the significance of creativity and its potential to impact society and individuals.


The works of Horace and David Hume offer valuable perspectives on the art of poetry and the notion of taste. While Horace’s ArsPoetica provides principles for aspiring poets and highlights the didactic role of poetry, Hume’s Of the Standard of Taste challenges the concept of universal standards and focuses on individual sentiment and emotional connection. Both works contribute to our understanding of the complex and subjective nature of literature, art, and aesthetics, inspiring us to explore and appreciate the diverse expressions of human creativity.

The Impact of NgugiWaThiongo’s Essay on the Abolition of the English Department


In his thought-provoking essay “On Abolition of the English Department,” published in the Norton anthology in the years 2092-2097, renowned Kenyan writer NgugiWaThiongo challenges the traditional teaching of English literature in academic institutions. This controversial piece of writing presents a powerful argument for the abolition of the English Department, calling for a more inclusive and diverse approach to linguistic and literary studies. Let us delve deeper into the implications and influence of NgugiWaThiongo’s essay.

Criticism of English as the Dominant Language

NgugiWaThiongo starts by questioning the dominance of English as the primary medium of education and intellectual discourse. He argues that the widespread imposition of English on non-English speaking countries has created a linguistic and cultural hierarchy, marginalizing local languages and literature. By suggesting the abolition of the English Department, NgugiWaThiongo aims to challenge the supremacy of the English language and open doors to alternative perspectives.

A Call for Linguistic and Cultural Diversity

In his essay, NgugiWaThiongo emphasizes the need to embrace linguistic and cultural diversity in academic institutions. He advocates for the inclusion of local languages and literature in curricula, highlighting their relevance in shaping students’ identities and enhancing their understanding of different cultures. By doing so, he argues, universities can provide a more comprehensive and equitable education that reflects the realities of a multicultural world.

Perspectives from Postcolonial Literature

Drawing from his own experiences as a postcolonial writer, NgugiWaThiongo reminds readers of the historical and social context in which the English language was imposed on colonized nations. He critiques the Eurocentric bias ingrained in English literature courses, which often downplay or exclude works from African, Asian, and Indigenous authors. By abolishing the English Department, NgugiWaThiongo strives to challenge the colonial legacy and create space for previously marginalized voices.

Rethinking the Canon

NgugiWaThiongo’s essay prompts a reevaluation of the literary canon taught in English departments. He argues that the current canon primarily represents the works of white, male writers from Western countries, neglecting the contributions of women, people of color, and voices from the Global South. By dismantling the English Department, NgugiWaThiongo urges scholars to expand the literary canon to include a more diverse range of authors, providing students with a broader perspective on the world.

Integrating Indigenous Knowledge

One of the central themes in NgugiWaThiongo’s essay is the significance of indigenous knowledge and oral traditions. He calls for universities to recognize and integrate the wisdom passed down through generations within Indigenous communities. By incorporating traditional knowledge systems into the curriculum, NgugiWaThiongo aims to challenge the Western-centric perspective and elevate the importance of indigenous voices in academia.

Embracing a Multilingual Approach

NgugiWaThiongo advocates for the acceptance and celebration of multiple languages within educational institutions. He encourages universities to establish departments or programs that promote the study of various languages, not limited to English alone. By doing so, he believes that students can develop stronger linguistic and cultural competencies, fostering greater understanding and respect for diverse communities.


NgugiWaThiongo’s essay, “On Abolition of the English Department,” challenges the long-standing dominance of English literature in academia. Through his thought-provoking arguments, he advocates for a more inclusive, diverse, and equitable approach to scholarly studies. As universities continue to grapple with issues of colonialism, cultural dominance, and marginalization, NgugiWaThiongo’s essay serves as a powerful catalyst for change, paving the way for a more inclusive and representative educational landscape.

Ronald Barthes: From Mythologies (Norton, 1461-1470)


Ronald Barthes was a prominent French philosopher and semiotician, known for his groundbreaking work in critical theory and cultural analysis. One of his most influential works is “Mythologies,” originally published in 1957 under the title “Mythologies: Essais critiques.” This thought-provoking collection of essays delves into various aspects of everyday life and popular culture, exploring the hidden meanings and ideologies embedded within them. In this article, we will take a closer look at Ronald Barthes and his groundbreaking work in “Mythologies.”

The Life and Intellectual Background of Ronald Barthes

Born on November 12, 1915, in Cherbourg, France, Ronald Barthes grew up to become one of the most influential intellectuals of his time. Barthes developed an early interest in literature and philosophy and embarked on a journey to explore cultural and literary theory. He studied at the University of Paris, where he pursued a degree in classical letters and philosophy.
Barthes was heavily influenced by linguistics, structuralism, and semiotics, which shaped his unique approach to cultural analysis. Drawing from the works of Ferdinand de Saussure and Claude Lévi-Strauss, Barthes developed his own theories on signs, symbols, and the underlying meanings within cultural artifacts.

“Mythologies”: Unveiling the Hidden Meanings in Popular Culture

In his seminal work “Mythologies,” Barthes examines various cultural phenomena, ranging from advertisements, fashion trends to wrestling matches and culinary habits. He argues that these seemingly mundane aspects of everyday life are not as innocent as they appear. Instead, they carry deep symbolic meanings that perpetuate certain ideologies and reinforce societal myths.
Through careful examination and deconstruction, Barthes aims to reveal the hidden codes and manipulative strategies employed by the dominant culture. He believes that these myths, propagated by media and consumerist society, serve to maintain the status quo and perpetuate oppressive power structures.

Norton Edition: From 1461 to 1470

The Norton edition of “Mythologies” spans from 1461 to 1470, giving readers a comprehensive selection of Barthes’ original essays. This edition includes influential pieces such as “The World of Wrestling,” “The Face of Garbo,” and “The New Citroën.” Each essay provides a unique lens through which Barthes analyzes and dissects different cultural phenomena, shedding light on the deeper meanings behind them.

Analyzing Modern Myths in Popular Culture

In “Mythologies,” Barthes challenges the conventional understanding of myths by expanding the concept beyond ancient folklore and religious narratives. He argues that myths are not limited to ancient tales but are also embedded in contemporary culture. By examining modern myths, he reveals the ideological mechanisms at play and their impact on society.
Barthes’ analysis of various advertisements is particularly noteworthy. He deconstructs their visual and textual elements, uncovering the underlying messages and stereotypes they propagate. Through his critical lens, he exposes the commodification of desires and the manipulation of consumer behavior inherent in advertising.

The Influence and Legacy of “Mythologies”

“Mythologies” had a profound impact on the fields of cultural studies, media analysis, and Critical Theory. Barthes’ approach to dissecting everyday life and popular culture paved the way for further exploration of semiotics and the study of signs and symbols. His work influenced subsequent generations of scholars and intellectuals who sought to critically examine the underlying ideologies embedded within cultural artifacts.
Barthes’ focus on myths in popular culture also laid the groundwork for the field of cultural studies, which seeks to understand how various cultural forms shape, reflect, and contest dominant ideologies. It opened up new avenues of discourse on topics such as media representation, power dynamics, and the construction of identity.


Ronald Barthes’ “Mythologies” remains a seminal work in cultural analysis, challenging readers to critically analyze the myths embedded within everyday life. By uncovering the hidden meanings and ideologies presented in various cultural artifacts, Barthes encourages us to question the dominant narratives and power structures that shape our understanding of the world. His insights continue to influence scholars and thinkers, making “Mythologies” a timeless and essential read for anyone interested in cultural theory and critical analysis.

G. W. Friedrich Hegel Lectures on Fine Arts: A Profound Exploration of Aesthetic Expression


G. W. Friedrich Hegel, a renowned philosopher of the 19th century, delivered a series of lectures on fine arts that have left an indelible mark on the field of aesthetics. These profound discourses, compiled in the book “Lectures on Fine Arts” (Norton, 636-645), delve deep into the essence of artistic expression and its relationship with human consciousness. In this article, we will explore the key themes and insights offered by Hegel in his enlightening lectures.

Hegel’s Concept of Art

Hegel believed that art is not just a mere representation of external beauty, but a manifestation of a deeper truth. In his lectures, he emphasized the idea that art has the power to reveal the spiritual and emotional experiences of humanity. Hegel’s conception of art goes beyond its mere visual or auditory aspects, extending to include the realm of ideas and concepts that are embedded within a work of art.

The Role of the Artist

According to Hegel, artists are the torchbearers of societal progress. They have the unique ability to translate abstract thoughts and emotions into concrete forms that resonate with individuals on a profound level. Through their creative endeavors, artists become mediators between the material world and the infinite realm of ideas. Hegel argued that artists, by expressing their innermost thoughts and emotions, enable others to understand and connect with their own humanity.

Beauty and Truth in Art

Hegel believed that true art is not merely concerned with aesthetically pleasing forms, but it must also reflect a deeper truth about the human experience. In his lectures, he emphasized the importance of genuine expression and authenticity in art. According to Hegel, when art successfully captures the essence of human emotions and experiences, it becomes a universal language that transcends time and space.

Evolution of Art Forms

Hegel’s lectures on fine arts explore the evolution of different art forms throughout history. He highlighted the significance of each era’s artistic style and its contribution to the overall development of humanity’s aesthetic sensibilities. From the ancient Greeks to the contemporary artists of his time, Hegel analyzed various artistic movements and emphasized their historical context, revealing how the evolution of art mirrors the evolution of society itself.

The Idea of the Sublime

In his lectures, Hegel introduced the concept of the sublime in art. The sublime refers to a quality in art that evokes a sense of awe, astonishment, and even terror. Hegel argued that the sublime is a reflection of the human spirit’s limitless potential and desire for transcendence. He believed that the experience of the sublime in art can awaken dormant emotions and challenge the boundaries of our rational thinking, leading us toward a deeper understanding of our own existence.

The Influence of Hegel’s Lectures

Hegel’s lectures on fine arts have had a profound impact on the field of aesthetics and art criticism. His ideas continue to shape contemporary discussions on the nature of art, the role of the artist, and the purpose of artistic expression. Many artists and scholars have drawn inspiration from Hegel’s insights, using them as a foundation for their own creative work or as a framework for analyzing and interpreting art.


The G. W. Friedrich Hegel Lectures on Fine Arts (Norton, 636-645) serve as a testament to the enduring power of art and its ability to communicate profound truths about the human experience. Hegel’s exploration of aesthetics, the role of the artist, and the evolution of art forms provides invaluable insights into the nature of artistic expression. His lectures continue to inspire and challenge artists, philosophers, and art enthusiasts worldwide, inviting us to reflect on the transformative power of art in our lives.

Terry Eagleton: Introduction to Literary Theory: An Introduction


Literary theory plays a fundamental role in understanding the essence and significance of literature. It allows us to explore the various lenses through which we can interpret and analyze literary texts. One of the most renowned authorities in the field of literary theory is Terry Eagleton. In his book “Literary Theory: An Introduction,” Eagleton provides a comprehensive and insightful overview of the subject. This article will delve into the key aspects of Eagleton’s work, highlighting its importance in the realm of literary studies.

Understanding Literary Theory

Before delving into Eagleton’s contribution, it is crucial to understand what literary theory embodies. Literary theory involves a collection of principles, concepts, and methodologies that aid in analyzing and interpreting literature. It allows readers to look beyond the surface of the text and understand the underlying social, historical, and cultural contexts in which it was written. Literary theory encompasses diverse approaches, including structuralism, feminism, postcolonialism, and psychoanalysis, providing invaluable tools for literary interpretation.

Terry Eagleton: The Authority on Literary Theory

Terry Eagleton, a prolific British literary critic and theorist, is highly regarded for his profound understanding and contribution to the field of literary theory. Eagleton’s “Literary Theory: An Introduction” is widely considered a seminal work that offers a comprehensive exploration of various theoretical frameworks. Its accessibility and clarity make it an invaluable resource for students, scholars, and enthusiasts alike.

An Overview of “Literary Theory: An Introduction”

Eagleton’s “Literary Theory: An Introduction” serves as an indispensable guide for individuals seeking a comprehensive understanding of different literary theories. The book explores key theoretical frameworks, including formalism, structuralism, Marxism, poststructuralism, and postmodernism. Eagleton provides a clear explanation of each theory’s central concepts, origins, and distinctive features.

Key Concepts Explored

In his exploration of literary theory, Eagleton introduces readers to a multitude of key concepts. These concepts form the foundation for understanding and analyzing literature through various theoretical frameworks. Some of the crucial concepts discussed in “Literary Theory: An Introduction” include:

1. Formalism

Formalism focuses on the intrinsic elements of a literary work, such as its form, structure, language, and style. It highlights the significance of these elements in conveying meaning and the impact they have on the reader’s interpretation.

2. Structuralism

Structuralism analyzes literature by examining the underlying structures and systems that govern its organization, meaning, and communication. It emphasizes the role of language and broader cultural systems in shaping literary texts.

3. Marxism

Marxist literary theory applies Marxist principles to literature, exploring how economic and social forces shape literary works and reflect class struggles and power dynamics. It highlights the influence of political and ideological contexts on literary production.

4. Poststructuralism

Poststructuralism rejects fixed and universal meanings, instead exploring the multiplicity of interpretations that exist. It challenges traditional notions of language and meaning, deconstructing literary texts to uncover the complexities within.

5. Postmodernism

Postmodernism questions established literary conventions and challenges the boundaries between genres, styles, and forms. It celebrates the fragmented and decentralized nature of literature, emphasizing intertextuality and self-reflexivity.

The Significance of Eagleton’s Work

Eagleton’s “Literary Theory: An Introduction” holds immense importance in the field of literary studies. Its lucid language and comprehensive coverage of various theoretical frameworks make it an invaluable resource for students and scholars. Eagleton breaks down complex ideas into digestible explanations, making the subject accessible to readers from diverse backgrounds.


Terry Eagleton’s “Literary Theory: An Introduction” serves as a guiding light for anyone seeking a deep understanding of literary theory. Its exploration of key theoretical frameworks and concepts equips readers with the tools necessary to critically analyze and interpret literature. By shedding light on the social, historical, and cultural contexts in which literary texts are situated, Eagleton’s work invites readers to engage with literature in a more profound and meaningful way. For those venturing into the realm of literary theory, Eagleton’s book is an indispensable companion.

John Crowe Ransom: Criticism
In the vast realm of literary criticism, John Crowe Ransom stands out as a prominent figure. His insightful analysis and thought-provoking ideas have left an indelible mark on the world of literature. In his work “Criticism,” which can be found in Norton’s anthology, Ransom delves deep into the art of critiquing and evaluating literary works.
Understanding the Art of Criticism
Ransom begins his exploration of criticism by highlighting its importance in the realm of literature. He emphasizes the need for a discerning eye and an analytical mind when engaging with literary works. Through his meticulous examination of various texts, he offers readers a framework for understanding and appreciating the nuances of literature.
Analyzing Sigmund Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams”
One of the literary works that Ransom dissects in his essay is Sigmund Freud’s monumental work, “The Interpretation of Dreams.” With his sharp intellect, Ransom examines Freud’s theories on dreams and their meanings. He delves into the complex web of symbolism and the unconscious mind, shedding light on the intriguing world of dreams as explored by Freud.
Unpacking the Brilliance of Charles Baudelaire’s “The Painter of Modern Life”
Another significant literary work that Ransom explores in his essay is Charles Baudelaire’s “The Painter of Modern Life.” Ransom appreciates Baudelaire’s ability to capture the essence of modernity in his writings. He analyzes Baudelaire’s perspective on art and the artist’s role in reflecting contemporary society. Ransom’s commentary on this work provides readers with a deeper understanding of the French poet’s groundbreaking ideas.
Ransom’s Unique Approach to Criticism
Ransom, being an accomplished critic himself, offers readers a glimpse into his own thought process when approaching literary works. He encourages readers to adopt an open mind and avoid restrictive dogmas when engaging with art. Ransom believes that criticism should be a dynamic and ever-evolving practice, adapting to the ever-changing landscape of literature.
The Legacy of John Crowe Ransom
Ransom’s work continues to be influential in the field of literary criticism. His insightful analysis and unique perspective have shaped the way critics approach literary works. Ransom’s commitment to understanding and appreciating literature has left an enduring mark on the discipline, inspiring future generations of literary enthusiasts.
John Crowe Ransom’s essay on criticism in Norton’s anthology is a testament to his expertise and passion for literature. Through his exploration of texts such as Sigmund Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams” and Charles Baudelaire’s “The Painter of Modern Life,” Ransom provides readers with valuable insights into the art of criticism. His unique approach and analytical prowess make his work a must-read for anyone interested in understanding and evaluating literary works. Ransom’s critique serves as a guiding light, allowing readers to navigate the intricate world of literature with a discerning eye and an open mind.


by Abdullah Sam
I’m a teacher, researcher and writer. I write about study subjects to improve the learning of college and university students. I write top Quality study notes Mostly, Tech, Games, Education, And Solutions/Tips and Tricks. I am a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

Leave a Comment