Often we think of chemicals as unwanted and unnatural additives found in the food or air we breathe. In fact, in fact, chemicals form all our food and also the air we breathe. However, there are certain compounds in the sense of certain organic chemistry which if added to food or air can cause significant problems.
For example, a chemical compound called MSG (monosodium glutamate) is often added to food to improve its taste. MSG, however, can cause headaches and other negative reactions. Chemical preservatives make it possible to store food without damage, but some preservatives, such as nitrates, have been found to cause cancer when overused.
table of contents
- Understanding Chemistry
- Understanding Chemicals According to Experts
- Kinds of Chemicals
- Chemicals that occur naturally
- Artificial Chemicals
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- Understanding Chemistry
Chemicals are often called ‘pure’ substances to distinguish them from mixtures. Common examples of chemicals are pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen and oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory.
Other chemicals that are commonly found in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and the purity of the chemicals is determined according to the intended use of the chemical.
Chemicals exist as solids, liquids, gases, or plasma, and can change between phases of this material along with chemical changes in temperature or pressure. Chemicals can be combined or converted to other forms through chemical reactions .
A chemical substance is a form of material that has a constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemicals cannot be separated into their constituent elements by physical separation methods, that is, without breaking chemical bonds .
Chemicals can be simple substances, chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemical elements can be included or not in the definition, depending on the viewpoint of the experts.
Understanding Chemicals According to Experts
The definition of chemical recruiting experts, among others:
A chemical is any substance that is composed of matter. This includes liquids, solids, or gases. Chemicals are pure substances (elements) or any mixture (solution, compound, or gas).
Kinds of Chemicals
Broadly speaking, the formation of chemicals occurs in two ways, namely natural and artificial.
Chemicals that occur naturally
Naturally occurring chemical symbols can be solid, liquid, or gas. Naturally occurring solids, liquids, or gases can consist of individual elements or can contain many elements in molecular form.
Every solid object found in the natural world is made of chemicals. Plant fibers, animal bones, stones and soil are all made of chemicals.
Some minerals, like copper or zinc, are made entirely from one element. But granite, for example, is igneous rock which consists of many elements. Following are some examples of solid chemicals:
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: copper) and atomic number 29. Copper is a soft and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. The new surface of pure copper has a pink orange color.
Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickels are used to make marine hardware and coins, and constants are used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurements.
Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a metal which is somewhat brittle at room temperature and has a blue-silver appearance when oxidation is removed. This is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table.
In some cases, zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: the two elements only show one normal oxidation state (+2), and Zn2 + and Mg2 + ions have the same size.
Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the earth’s crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. Zinc is purified by flotation of ore froth, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning).
Gold (Au) is a chemical element, a solid yellow sparkling precious metal from Group 11 (Ib), Period 6, from the periodic table. Gold has several qualities that make it very valuable throughout history.
It is attractive in color and brightness, durable until it cannot be virtually destroyed, is very malleable, and is usually found in nature in a relatively pure form. The history of gold is incomparable with other metals because of its high value.
Granite is a type of intrusive frusic igneous rock that has a granular and phaneric texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray, depending on their mineralogy.
Worldwide averages of the chemical composition of granite, based on weight percent, based on 2485 analyzes consisting of: SiO2 72.04% (silica); Al2O3 14.42% (alumina); K2O (potassium oxide) 4.12%; Na2O (sodium oxide) 3.69%; CaO (calcium oxide) 1.82%; FeO (iron oxide) 1.68%; Fe2O3 (ferrous dioxide) 1.22%; MgO (magnesium oxide) 0.71%; TiO2) titanium dioxide) 0.30%; P2O5 (phosphorus pentoxide) 0.12%; MnO (manganese oxide) 0.05%.
Perhaps the most important natural liquid in the universe is water. Made from hydrogen and oxygen, water behaves differently than most other liquids because it expands when frozen. This natural chemical behavior has profound effects on the geology, geography and biology of the Earth and (almost certainly) other planets. Following are some examples of liquid chemicals:
Water is a chemical that is transparent, tasteless, odorless, and almost colorless, which is the main element of the earth’s hydrosphere, and the liquid of most living organisms. It is very important for all known life forms, although it does not provide calories or organic nutrition.
Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard environmental temperatures and pressures. It forms rainfall in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog.
- Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
Sulfuric acid, also known as vitriol, is a mineral acid that forms naturally through oxidation of sulfide minerals, for example composed of elements of sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula H2 H2 SO4. This is a colorless, odorless liquid and syrup that is soluble in water and synthesized in a very exothermic reaction.
Its corrosive properties can mainly be ascribed to strong acidic properties, and, if at high concentrations, dehydration and oxidizing properties. It is also hygroscopic, easily absorbs moisture from the air. Upon contact, sulfuric acid can cause severe chemical burns and even secondary thermal burns; it is very dangerous even at moderate concentrations.
Sulfuric acid is a very important commodity chemical, and the country’s production of sulfuric acid is a good indicator of industrial strength. This is most often used in the manufacture of fertilizers, but is also important in mineral processing, oil refining, wastewater treatment, and chemical synthesis.
Oxygen and nitrogen are naturally formed gases. Together, they make up most of the air we breathe. Hydrogen is the most common naturally occurring gas in the universe.
Oxygen is a chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the group of chalogens in the periodic table, not a highly reactive metal, and oxidizing agents that are ready to form oxides with most elements and with other compounds.
In bulk, oxygen is the third largest element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atomic elements bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. Diatomic oxygen gas is 20.8% of the earth’s atmosphere. As a compound including oxide, this element forms almost half of the earth’s crust.
Oxygen is used in cellular respiration and many of the main classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as well as inorganic compounds that make up shells, teeth and animal bones.
Oxygen is continually replenished in the Earth’s atmosphere through photosynthesis, which uses sunlight energy to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1,008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical in the universe, which forms about 75% of all baryonic masses.
The first appearance of the universal hydrogen atom occurred during the recombination era (Big Bang). At standard temperatures and pressures, hydrogen is a diatomic gas that is non-flammable, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, non-metallic, highly flammable with the formula H2 molecule.
Because hydrogen easily forms covalent bonding compounds with most of the nonmetal elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in the form of molecules such as water or organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a very important role in acid-base reactions because most acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between dissolved molecules.
- Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density of about 60% higher than dry air. Carbon dioxide consists of carbon atoms which are covalently binded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in the earth’s atmosphere as a trace gas. The current concentration is around 0.04% (410 ppm) in volume, after rising from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm.
Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and they are released from carbonate rocks through dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice sheets, glaciers, and sea water.
This is present in petroleum and natural gas deposits. Carbon dioxide does not smell at concentrations that are usually found, but at high concentrations, it has a sharp and acidic odor.
Humans might begin to combine chemicals before recorded history. About 5,000 years ago, we knew that people began to combine metals (copper and lead) to make a strong and soft metal called bronze. The discovery of bronze was a major event, because it was possible to form a large number of new tools, weapons and armor.
Artificial chemical compounds have changed the food and pharmaceutical industries. The combination of elements has made it possible to preserve and flavor foods at low prices, and chemicals are also used to make a variety of textures from crisp, chewy to smooth.
Artificial chemical compounds are a major part of the pharmaceutical industry. By combining active and inactive chemicals in the pill, pharmacists can treat various disorders.
Bronze is an alloy or combination of several metals and other elements, such as copper with other chemical elements, usually with lead, although it can also be with other elements such as phosphorus, manganese, aluminum, or silicon
Bronze is hard and is widely used in industry, for example it is a staple for construction and trade. Over the last several hundred years, many combinations of different elements have resulted in the manufacture of stainless steel, lightweight aluminum, foil, and other products that are very useful.