Inorganic compounds. They are all those compounds that are formed by different elements, but in which its main component is not always carbon, with water being the most abundant. In inorganic compounds it could be said that almost all the known elements participate.
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- 1 Features
- 2 Training
- 3 Ionic bond
- 4 Covalent bond
- 5 Examples
- 6 Inorganic chemical groups and functions
- 7 Sources
Compound substances, or chemical compounds , are divided into two groups: organic and inorganic.
Inorganic compounds are all those compounds that are made up of different elements, but in which its main component is not always carbon , with water being the most abundant. In inorganic compounds it could be said that almost all the known elements participate. They are inert or dead substances, and are characterized by not containing carbon, such as lime , cooking salt, battery acid and others, which are studied by inorganic chemistry .
Inorganic compounds have high melting and boiling points, due to their strong and structured ionic bond . The covalent bond is comparatively easier to weaken on heating, causing it to have low melting and boiling points .
While an organic compound is formed naturally in both animals and plants , an inorganic compound is formed ordinarily by the action of different physical and chemical forces; electrolysis , fusion. They could also be considered agents of the creation of these substances to solar energy , water , oxygen . The bonds that inorganic compounds form are usually ionic or covalent.
It is the attraction between an atom of a high electronegativity element (nonmetal) and an atom of a low electronegativity element (metal). Due to the considerable difference between its electronegativities, the metal transfers its valence electrons to the nonmetal. It is called an ionic bond because when the transfer and acceptance take place, the atoms are transformed into their corresponding positive (cation) and negative (anion) ions.
A simple example is the bond between sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride . Sodium (Group IA) transfers its valence electron to chlorine, transforming itself into the sodium ion, Na +, and chlorine (Group VIIA) upon receiving the electron becomes the chloride ion, Cl. In some cases, the formula is usually written of sodium chloride expressing ionic charges, that is, as Na + Cl-.
It is the attraction between two atoms of high electronegativity elements (nonmetals) sharing, between them, some of their valence electrons. In each covalent bond a pair of electrons is shared . The bonds between two hydrogen atoms , two chlorine atoms, and one hydrogen and one chlorine atom are examples of covalent bonds. In a covalent bond, the sharing of the electron pair can be in the form of a normal covalent bond or in the form of a coordinated or dative bond.
There are certain inorganic compounds that contain carbon and are considered inorganic, since they do not contain carbon-carbon bonds and their properties are similar to these types of compounds, among which is carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide ( CO2).
Other examples of these compounds are: water (H2O), sodium chloride (NaCl), nitrogen monoxide (NO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), etc.
- Sodium Chloride (NaCl) is equal to one Sodium atom and one Chlorine atom.
- Water (H2O) is equal to two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
- The ammonia (NH3) is equal to a nitrogen atom and three hydrogen.
- The carbon dioxide , which is in the gaseous atmosphere and living beings to eliminate it through breathing. Its chemical formula is CO2, that is, one carbon and two oxygen atoms. CO2 is taken up by vegetables in the photosynthesis process to make glucose . It is important to clarify that CO2, although it contains carbon, is not organic because it does not contain hydrogen either.
Inorganic chemical groups and functions
Almost all the chemical elements of the periodic table are involved in inorganic chemical compounds, so there are many of these last substances and, to facilitate their study, they have been divided or classified into the following groups, subtypes or fundamental inorganic chemical functions:
- Oxides . They are of two types: basic oxides, also called metallic oxides; and acidic oxides, also called anhydrides and non-metallic oxides.
- Acids .
- You go out .
- Hydrides .
- Others, such as peroxides .