Human behaviors are practically infinite. There are noble performances, while others are despicable. Between them there is an innumerable range of possibilities. This circumstance makes it necessary to establish a certain normative order to regulate coexistence. This order is possible thanks to the laws.
We have guidelines and limits that are imparted to us from the father figure as the first interaction as authority, being reprimanded and punished when we are misbehaving, and on the contrary we are congratulated and rewarded in case we pay attention
This is about what is known as Implicit Norms , being different kinds of orders, rules and guidelines that fundamentally aim at good coexistence , without the need for them to be accepted or signed in a contract or regulation, but are understood as part of the common sense .
But on the other hand we have the Explicit Norms , being they enunciated and promulgated through the use of written language , with the characteristics that they must be elaborated by a competent organism, being at the state level the Legislative Power , fundamentally aiming to establish a public order , and having those that have the format of statements, while on the other hand describe different procedures in conflict resolution, being Form Laws.
These are automatically accepted as part of being citizens within a State of Law , which is constituted precisely through the National Constitution or any other form that is adopted as Supreme Law , from which the allocation of powers starts , their respective limits as well as the rights and guarantees that the people have available.
Who makes them?
The legislative bodies of each nation are responsible for articulating the legal system. The people who perform this function are the legislators. The legislative power in democratic countries is made up of representatives elected by the people.
Who administers justice?
The judiciary is responsible for applying the laws throughout society. In the different courts of justice, the judges resolve controversies, condemn the accused or acquit them. In his performance, the judge must comply with the laws established by the legislator.
The ethical dimension
The laws are intended to be fair, reasonable, and balanced. For this to be possible, it is necessary for the legislator to reflect on the morality of the issues that arise.
Law and ethics should go hand in hand, but they often take different paths. Many court decisions are technically valid because they conform to established laws, but are not considered morally acceptable.
Do you always have to respect the laws?
In principle, all laws must be respected, otherwise we would live in a chaotic society and subject to all kinds of threats. However, some laws are debatable and respect for them can be problematic from a moral point of view. Jesus Christ himself was accused of breaking the laws established by the Romans.
A paradigmatic case is that of Socrates, who defended the need to respect the laws of Athens and when the courts of justice accused him of corruption with falsehoods, he ended up accepting his punishment with total resignation and took his life.
The list of absurd, disproportionate or unfair laws is extensive
In some countries with a Muslim tradition, masturbation is punished by beheading. In France, a pig is forbidden to have the name Napoleon.
In some countries, married women may be raped in marriage or executed if they are unfaithful.
In Nigeria, the husband can beat the wife if she misbehaves.
In Iran, women can testify in court only if their testimony is supported by two men.
Criminal laws in Singapore punish the import of chewing gum or throwing gum on the ground in a public place.
The Khmer Rouge in Cambodia declared those who were not engaged in manual activities “enemies of the people” (this legislative measure led to the genocide of three million people).