How Is Lactase Produced.Lactase is an enzyme produced in the small intestine , which plays a vital role in the breakdown of lactose ( a process necessary for its absorption by our body ) into its two basic components: glucose and galactose .Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products.
How Is Lactase Produced.
It is produced in the small intestine of mammals, including humans, and is crucial for the digestion of milk.The production of lactase is regulated by the lactase gene, which is located on chromosome 2 in humans. In most mammals, including humans, the production of lactase decreases after weaning, and lactose digestion becomes less efficient. However, some human populations have evolved lactase persistence, which allows them to digest lactose into adulthood.
The production of lactase is stimulated by the presence of lactose in the small intestine. When lactose is present, it binds to the lactase enzyme, causing the production of more lactase. This feedback loop helps to ensure that there is enough lactase available to break down lactose in the diet.
In some cases, the body may not produce enough lactase, leading to lactose intolerance. This can result in symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea after consuming dairy products. In these cases, lactase supplements or lactose-free dairy products can help to alleviate symptoms.
Lactase is produced in the brush border of the cells that cover the intestinal microvilli . It belongs to the family of disaccharidases , which are the enzymes that are responsible for breaking disaccharides into the monosaccharides that form them. The lack of lactase causes lactose intolerance , which is a relatively common anomaly, especially in the elderly. It has been suggested that lactase secretion in the human adult stage is an evolutionary adaptation that arose more than 7,500 years ago. This lactase synthesis is characteristic of the Balkan population.
Lactase related abnormalities
- Lactose intolerance: it is a clinical syndrome that presents with one or more of the following manifestations: abdominal pain , diarrhoea , nausea , flatulence and sensation of fullness after ingestion of a product containing lactose.
- Lactose malabsorption: it is a physiological problem that is associated with lactose intolerance and is attributed to the imbalance between the amount of lactose ingested and the ability to digest lactose.
- Primary lactase deficiency: it is the relative or absolute absence of lactase that develops during childhood and that in most cases is the cause of malabsorption and intolerance to lactose. This deficiency is also referred to as adult hypolactasia , absent lactase persistence, or hereditary lactase deficiency.
- Secondary Lactase Deficiency: This is lactase deficiency due to lesions of the small intestine, acute gastroenteritis , persistent diarrhoea, chemotherapy for cancer , etc. That is, due to disorders that alter the gastric mucosa and that occur at any age, although it is common in childhood.
- Congenital lactase deficiency: This is an extremely rare case of lactase deficiency due to unknown causes that occurs in the newborn. Until the development of lactose-free infant formulas, subjects with this deficiency could not survive.