Gurma (Disease)

t is an infectious, febrile, acute or subacute disease that affects the upper respiratory tract and adjacent nodes (retropharyngeal and submandibular). It occurs mainly in foals younger than 2 years of age and is caused by Streptococcus equi (gram + bacteria). It is highly contagious, and the main route of entry for the bacteria is through the respiratory tract, but it can also enter through wounds that have contact with purulent secretions or from infected breast milk. It has an incubation period of 3 to 8 days.

Summary

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  • 1 Etiology
  • 2 Geographical distribution
  • 3 Susceptible species
  • 4 Transmission mechanism
  • 5 Incubation period
  • 6 Pathogenesis
  • 7 Symptoms
  • 8 Diagnosis
  • 9 Treatment
  • 10 Prophylaxis
  • 11 Necropsy
  • 12 Post-infection time Disease stage
  • 13 Type of patients, measures to take
    • 1 Asymptomatic animal
    • 2 Animal in acute phase
    • 3 Management measures to improve animal comfort
    • 4 Animal with sinusitis
    • 5 Animal with Systemic Treatment
      • 5.1 Management measures to improve animal comfort
    • 14 Sources

Etiology

Streptococcus equi.

Geographical distribution

Global, sporadically appearing

Susceptible species

Equine

Transmission mechanism

Air or digestive. Transmission of the disease occurs through the contact of a susceptible individual with infected secretions, either by direct contact between animals or indirectly through fomites, including the personnel that handle the animals and the shared material (equipment, cleaning tools, feeders , etc.) An important source of the infection with mumps is clinically ill animals, which eliminate the bacteria continuously or intermittently in the nasal secretions and the pus that drains from the infected lymph nodes. Remote transmission through aerosols does not seem to be an important route in the transmission of this disease.

Incubation period

From 4 to 8 days

Pathogeny

The bacteria in the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa produce acute rhinitis pharyngitis. The local lymph nodes are abcented and, when drained, can give rise to surative processes in the kidney, brain, liver, spleen, and tendon and joint sheaths.

symptom

  • Fever
  • Purulent serous runny nose
  • Pharyngitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Wet, painful cough
  • Extended head
  • Swollen, painful to the touch and hot nodes
  • Sequel to Gurma hemorrhagic purpura

Diagnosis

Clinical and bacteriological The diagnosis is made from the symptoms, by the lesions and by laboratory from samples of secretion. The prognosis is favorable when the disease is limited only to the upper respiratory tract, which generally heal in 2 or 3 weeks. In the event of complications, the prognosis is reserved and it depends on which organ is affected.

Treatment

Medical treatment is effective, the use of antibiotics such as depot penicillin or sulfa-trimethoprim is recommended, but never a combination of both. Abscesses should mature and surgical drainage and antiseptic lavage should be performed. Affected animals should be isolated for the high contagiousness of the disease. The use of vaccines in foals from an early age is recommended. Administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in high doses (3,000 to 6,000 IU / Kg body weight) and symptomatic treatment, soft feeding, airway hygiene

Prophylaxis

  • Isolation of sick animals
  • Disinfection of mangers and pens
  • Bacterin apply a dose once a year especially to foals younger than 1 year.
  • After removing the organic matter from the facilities, they must be soaked in liquid disinfectant or treated with steam and left to dry.
  • Drinkers should be disinfected at least once a day during an outbreak.

Necropsy

It is not normally practiced, if there were purulent lesions at the liver, spleen, lung, large vessels and peritoneum.

Post-infection time Disease stage

Few hours Infiltration of the lymph nodes of the pharyngeal region

  • 2-3 days First signs of lymphadenopathy : heat, local pain, subcutaneous edema .
  • 3-14 days High fever, depression.

Hematological changes compatible with the development of abscesses (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenemia).

  • From 2-3 days later, excretion of the bacteria in the nasal secretions of the appearance of fever, until 2-3 weeks later.

From 1 week onward Evident and progressive signs of regional lymphadenopathy:

  • Progressive inflammation and local pain.
  • Possible anorexia
  • Dysphagia
  • Dyspnea, transcutaneous serous suppuration

Type of patients, measures to take

Asymptomatic animal

  • No special treatment
  • Take the rectal temperature daily to detect a possible phase of the infection.
  • Keep in the clean area of ​​the facilities

Animal in acute phase

  • Treatment with penicillin (eg 22000 IU / Kg. IM q12h or IV q6h) between 3 and 5 days.
  • Take the rectal temperature daily to follow the evolution of the infection.
  • Ideally keep in a buffer zone until signs are controlled and move to the clean area of ​​the facility

Management measures to improve the comfort of the animal

  • If the temperature is very high or the animal is very depressed;

stimulate the maturation of the abscesses and, once opened, wash daily with povidone-iodine solution 3-5%.

  • Take the rectal temperature daily to follow the evolution of the infection.
  • Keep in the contaminated area of ​​the facilities.

Animal with sinusitis

  • Cleaning the throat / sinus bags by washing with saline and / or empyema of the aspiration bags of the contents.
  • Systemic treatment with penicillin (eg 22000 IU / Kg. IM q12h or IV q6h)
  • Take the rectal temperature daily to follow the evolution of the infection.

Animal with Systemic Treatment

With broad-spectrum antibiotics (eg penicronronopneumonia na + gentamicin + metronidazole) the time necessary to control the infection. Anti-inflammatories and other support treatments as needed (intravenous fluid therapy, oxygen …).

Management measures to improve the comfort of the animal

  • Take the rectal temperature daily to follow the evolution of the infection
  • Keep in the contaminated area of ​​the facilities.

 

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