Genital wart. Sexually transmitted infection ( STI ) also called condylomata acuminata, caused by the human papilloma virus ( HPV ) that affects the skin or mucous membranes. HPV can sometimes be the cause of the later appearance of forms of cervical cancer , although it has been recorded through studies that the active forms of the virus that cause genital warts differ from those that induce the development of anarcoproliferative processes.
The virus can cause fleshy cauliflower- like bumps to appear in moist areas located in and around the sexual organs and mouth; being more common to be observed, in the female sex, in the inner and outer parts of the vagina, in the opening or cervix towards the belly ( uterus ) or around the anus, while in men the presence of these lesions is less common , but if manifested they are observed in the areas near the head of the penis , scrotum and anus . In rare cases, lesions of this type can be found in the oral mucosa and throat.of individuals, of both sexes, who have had oral sex with carriers of the virus. In many cases, warts are detectable to the naked eye by physical examination .
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- 1 Demonstrations
- 2 Risk factors
- 3 Symptoms and signs
- 4 Exams
- 5 Treatment
- 1 Forecasts and conduct
- 6 Complications
- 7 Prevention
- 8 External links
- 9 Sources
Electron micrograph of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
Infection with HPV around the genitals is common, although most people are asymptomatic. However, even if the person has no symptoms, he should protect himself by having sex, to avoid complications and the spread of the condition to others.
There are over seventy different HPV serotypes . Several types are associated with genital warts, while others are associated with common warts or flat warts elsewhere on the skin. HPV proliferates without problem in moist genital areas. Warts on the external genitalia are easily recognized as they are raised, fleshy lesions that can occur alone or in clusters. If left untreated, warts can quickly enlarge, taking on a cauliflower- like appearance .
In women, HPV can invade the vagina and cervix. These warts are flat and are not easily visible without the use of special procedures. Since HPV can lead to carcinogenic and pre-cancerous changes in the cervix, it is important that this condition is diagnosed and treated. The Pap test is needed to detect HPV or other abnormal changes related to this virus in the neck of the uterus. On the other hand, having genital herpes virus and HPV leaves women at particular risk of cervical cancer .
There are a series of risk factors that predispose the individual to contract HPV and subsequently develop injuries of this type, among them are:
- Having multiple sexual partners
- Not knowing if someone you have had sex with has a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
- Early initiation of sexual activity
- Consumption of alcohol ( Alcoholism) and tobacco ( Smoking habit )
- Stressand other viral infections (such as HIV or genital herpes virus) at the same time
If a child develops genital warts, Child Abuse should be suspected as the possible cause.
Symptoms and signs
The symptoms that the sick patient manifests are variable, although in most cases it is closely related to the area of infection. You may have raised fleshy lesions on the genitals, anus, or skin surrounding the lesions. Cauliflower-like tumors around the anus or genitals. Increased humidity in the area of tumors. Itching of the penis, scrotum, anal area, or vulvar itching. Increased vaginal discharge . Abnormal vaginal bleeding (not associated with a menstrual period) after having sex.
Genital examination reveals flesh-to-whitish, flat, or raised lesions, alone or in clusters anywhere on the genitals.
In women, a pelvic exam can reveal tumors on the vaginal walls or cervix . An enlargement ( colposcopy ) can be used to see invisible injuries to the naked eye.
Genital warts should be treated by a doctor or nurse, mainly in the STI office , at the polyclinic in your health area. If you have a genital wart, you should go to your Family Doctor and this will refer you to the STI consultation, or you can go directly to the latter, this is where they decide what therapeutic measures will be followed. Surgical treatments include cryosurgery , laser therapy , or surgical excision , among others.
Forecasts and behavior
A previous genital wart infection does not make the person immune to the disease. If a person suffers from genital warts, all individuals with whom they had sex should be examined at the STI clinic. Women who have had genital warts and women whose sexual partners once had these types of warts should undergo organic cytology ( Pap test ) every time they are cited for neck pathology. Outbreaks of genital warts can generally be controlled with proper treatment; however they can reappear frequently after treatment and people can still infect others.
Warts can multiply and become quite large, requiring more extensive treatment and control procedures. Seek medical help if a current or former sexual partner is found to have genital warts. Likewise if visible warts are observed on the external genitalia, itching , discharge or abnormal vaginal bleeding. It should be noted that genital warts may not appear for months or years after sexual contact with an infected person. Sexually active adolescents are very susceptible to HPV and should be examined at regular intervals for infection with this virus.
The sexual abstinence is the only foolproof way to prevent genital warts and other sexually transmitted infection. Similarly, a monogamous sexual relationship with a partner who is known to be healthy is one way to avoid this disease. The skin near warts and around the genitals, anus, and other areas can transmit the virus from one person to another, therefore, male and female condoms cannot offer complete protection, however, condoms are still they should use as these reduce the chance of acquiring or spreading sexually transmitted infections. These precautions should be taken every time, since HPV can be passed from one person to another even when there are no visible warts or other symptoms.
There is a vaccine called Gardasil , which prevents infection against four of the HPV strains, responsible for most genital warts and cervical cancer in women. The vaccine is applied in a series of three injections and is only used in women. Research is being carried out in Cuba .