The process called gene translation is studied in biology and refers to the biological process in which the message contained in the mRNA molecule is read by the ribosome. Translation consists of the union of amino acids according to the codon sequence of the messenger RNA – this is determined by the gene. Gene translation, also known as protein synthesis, thus represents the translation of genetic information.
Gene translation takes place in ribosomes: in these, messenger RNA is translated into protein by several molecules of carrier RNA, each of which is specific to each of the amino acids. The messenger RNA molecules have a nucleotide sequence that will be translated into another sequence of amino acids that will be determined according to the genetic code. Although there are 64 possible nucleotide cracks, 62 encode amino acid production while only 3 correspond to the termination sequences of the gene translation process.
Beginning, middle and end
The association of a ribosome, a messenger RNA and a transporter RNA – carrying the amino acid methionine – initiates the process of gene translation. The carrier RNA has UAC anticodon and the messenger RNA codon is AUG, so the crack consists of the process initiation codon.
The first two transporter RNAs fit into the P and A sites and shortly thereafter the ribosome catalyzes the binding of the transporter RNA amino acids. The ribosome travels through the messenger RNA molecule and in the course of this process, the sites become occupied by new transporting RNAs whose amino acids correspond to the messenger RNAs. The links are synthesized and, finally, the signaling sequences of the end of the gene translation are found.
This process comes to an end only when the finalizing codon can be found on the same messenger RNA strip being translated – UGA, UAA or UAG -. These codons are not read and therefore do not interfere with the translation process. Finally, the polypeptide is released leaving the ribosome available for the start of a new synthesis of another protein.