Fauvism. Bourgeois art stream ; It received the name “fauves” after an exhibition held in 1904 and whose participants, including Henri Matisse , Raoul Dufy , André Derain , Albert Marquet , Georges Rouault , Maurice Vlaminck , Georges Braque and Van Dongen, were united by their negative attitude not only against academic and naturalistic art, but also against traditions and artistic laws in general. The fauvists tried to express their discontent with capitalist reality by affirming the artist’s right to deform and present representable objects and phenomena in a primitive way, exorbitantly exorbitant elements, composition, perspective, etc. They saw the mission of art in removing man from the contradictions of life, in instilling tranquility, in providing man with satisfactions despite the fierce struggle that is taking place in the world. In the early 1920s , Fauvism was replaced by other new trends
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· 1 Emergence
· 2 Precedents
· 3 Protagonists
· 4 Pictorial movement in Spain
· 5 Sources
Fauvism was a short-lived French pictorial movement. It was developed between 1904 – 1908 approximately. The 1905 Autumn Salon was the first exhibition for the group. Fovism or Fauvism (from the French fauve pronounced “fov”: fierce), a Spanish term for the pictorial style of expressionist characteristics such as the use of intense colors, mainly green. It stands out above all for that unnatural chromaticism. They seek the expressive force of color by applying different colors to those that can be seen in reality, for example, lemon yellow trees or emerald green faces.
To talk about the origins, we have to remember Van Gogh and Gauguin , since both, fleeing from Impressionism, took a free and personal execution, impulsive and passionate, at the same time that they opted for intensely colored works.
In 1904, Henri Matisse (father of Fovism), painted Luxury, Calm and Voluptuousness, considered as the synthesis work of post-impressionism, manipulated in a personal exercise, and virtually a manifesto of what would be Fovism soon after. Considered the leader of the Fauvists, he was the only one of them who did not change his direction. Try to express feelings through the use of color and form. The subjective use of color and the simplification of the drawing surprised everyone when it was exhibited in the Salon of the Independent of the Autumn Salon of 1905.
André Derain was immediately influenced and began to paint using nothing more than line and color. His disinterest in finishing and its garish colors earned him the disdain of criticism when he exhibited his landscapes, painted in Collioure, in the Autumn Salon of 1906. There was also exhibited the Portrait of Mrs. Matisse de Matisse, which was interpreted as a caricature of femininity and as an eccentricity. The rejection of criticism turned the fovistas into the most advanced group in Paris.
Pictorial movement in Spain
In Spain , this pictorial movement developed in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century has passed sweetly among many painters in Catalonia and Andalusia a style characterized by the aggressive violence of its colors. In Barcelona , the creator Louis Vauxcelles was always thought of as its creator, who, on the occasion of the 1905 Autumn Salon, called the room where the most extreme colorists gathered together “fauves”. The Spanish fovistas have used only pure tones and unrelated to reality, denying both the legality of seeking the form through light and the shadow and representation of space based on chiaroscuro .
Fovism was not a school in Spain, but the expression of a number of investigations carried out jointly by Henri Matisse , Albert Marquet , Henri Manguin , Charles Camoin , Louis Valtat , Jean Puy , Othon Friesz , Raoul Dufy and Georges Braque . In Latin America, the influence of the avant-garde movements began to be felt only from the 1920s and consolidated in the 1950s with the Mexican painter of Oaxacan origin, Rufino Tamayo , who also had marked influences of Cubism and Futurismthat they allowed him to create a unique language; Anita Malfatti , Emiliano Cavalcanti and Vicente do Rego were also decisive in the development of Brazilians . All of them end up practicing a kind of mixture between expressionism and cubism.