Biodiversity or biological diversity comes from the Greek “bios” which means “life”, so the term deals with the diversity of any and all types of life existing on our planet, region, country or a simple community, from plants, animals or microorganisms. Biodiversity work covers several areas, such as genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. The maintenance of ecosystems depends on maintaining the interactions of organisms and biodiversity. Biodiversity is related to geography, as it involves the different spaces where species are distributed over time.
Biodiversity is important, as it deals with all the richness and variety of species on the planet. As examples we have: forests, caatinga , tundra, rivers and lakes, etc. In Brazil, biodiversity plays an important role, with emphasis on the Amazon Forest , which covers approximately 70% of the planet’s diversity.
Brazilian biodiversity is very varied and rich, with abundant fauna and flora. Conservation biology is an area that integrates knowledge of ecology, physiology, genetics, molecular biology and evolutionary biology in order to preserve biological diversity at its three levels: genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity.
However, many factors can interfere and threaten the biodiversity of a given location, with this, many conservation units were created in order to preserve the species. In Brazil, all conservation units are registered with the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) . Conservation units can be of two types: full protection or sustainable use.
Integral protection measures aim to preserve nature, allowing only the indirect use of its natural resources. The ones for sustainable use have the objective of conserving nature, considering the direct and sustainable use of part of their natural resources, with the exception of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN), to which the use restriction imposed on the units applies. of full protection conservation.
Concept: What is biodiversity in geography?
In geography, biodiversity means the distribution of species in space and their relationships according to climatic and temporal influences.
Biodiversity comes from the Greek “bios” which means “life” (Photo: depositphotos)
What is its importance?
Biodiversity is important because it maintains the dynamic balance of the planet . The interactions established between species in ecosystems guarantee the maintenance of life.
Any existing ecosystem, however small, is considered a place of biodiversity. For example: mangroves, forests, desert, lagoons, rivers, oceans, caves , etc.
Biodiversity in Brazil
Biodiversity in Brazil is highlighted by the Amazon Forest , as it presents an enormous wealth of fauna, flora and microorganisms. The role played by each living being and its ecological relationships are closely linked to Brazilian biodiversity.
Brazil is one of the richest countries in the world, however, climate change and overexploitation of natural resources have damaged local biodiversity. Brazil is the country that hosts the largest biodiversity in the world , it is estimated that in national territory are 10% to 15% of all biodiversity on the planet. With more than 50 thousand species of trees and shrubs, it occupies the first place in plant biodiversity .
Many studies and research on biodiversity have gained ground recently. The Ministry of the Environment intensified scientific research in the area, involving several sciences, such as: biology, geography, paleontology, history, ecology and others.
Threats to biodiversity
There are many threats to biodiversity, such as: industrialization, environmental pollution, burning, illegal hunting of endangered species, urbanization in green or protected areas, climate change, introduction of exotic species, pollution, global warming, inadequate waste disposal, among others. .
When we talk about pollution we can highlight at least four types: noise pollution, pollution by eutrophication, thermal pollution and air pollution . Noise pollution not only annoys and brings disease to humans, it also bothers animals. Excessive noise in the short and medium term brings irritability, behavior change and physiological changes.
Pollution by eutrophication occurs due to the release of human waste into the environment, which contributes to the spread of various diseases and the mortality of species. Thermal pollution is characterized by the increase in water temperature, mainly by the action of electric and atomic plants. Some species are affected due to this temperature variation, causing ecological imbalance. Air pollution can be caused by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide, which accentuates the greenhouse effect causing global warming.
Garbage is also a big problem when disposed of inappropriately. In Brazil, about 600 g of urban waste is produced per person per day, and in large cities like São Paulo, this number reaches between 1 kg and 1.2 kg per person per day. New York is the champion city in garbage production, each person produces an average of about 3 kg of garbage per day.
What to do with the amount of discarded materials, such as glass, plastics, metals, paper, cardboard and food scraps? In some places, garbage is still deposited in large open-air dumps . In addition to the bad smell, these dumps are responsible for the intense proliferation of insects, such as flies, cockroaches and rats, causing a major environmental impact problem for the local fauna and flora.
Leachate, which is highly contaminating, pollutes groundwater and contaminates existing biodiversity. In 2010, the National Solid Waste Policy was instituted, which provides for the creation of plans for the disposal of dumps and the subsequent recovery of the land they occupied.
Biodiversity is responsible for ecological balance across the planet, keeping population levels regulated in each type of ecosystem. Even though it is so important, it has been constantly threatened and ruthlessly degraded day after day. This is due to the disordered and uncontrolled growth of industrialization, which with constant encouragement from capitalism, wipes out entire ecosystems in search of territory and raw materials.
The more human populations expand and the more technology advances, the more strained human relations with nature become, thus increasing the need to exploit natural resources. Consequently, actions that alter the structure and functioning of ecosystems are expanded.