Definition, Form, Characteristics and Crime of Cyberbullying

Understanding Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is behavior or action aimed at someone repeatedly intentionally, by sending text messages, emails, pictures or videos through internet media or other digital technology, with the aim of insulting, cursing, humiliating and threatening.

Cyberbullying has a very bad impact on the victim, among others; low self-esteem, decline in value, depression, anxiety, not interested in activities that previously can be enjoyed, meaninglessness, withdrawal from friends, avoiding school or play groups, even changes in mood, behavior, sleep patterns and appetite.

Cyberbullying consists of several individuals who play a role, there are so-called perpetrators, targets, and people around who are aware of bullying, the composition is the same as bullying in the real world. Targets are targets, often identified as victims. Beyond the perpetrators and targets, there are other individuals involved or participating in supporting bullying, which is called the Bystanders. Bystanders can also be divided into bystanders who participate with offenders to harass targets or who do nothing.

Cyberbullying victims tend to feel helpless and resigned when experiencing bullying. Fun and prestige factors become the main factors triggering cyberbullying other than the revenge factor, or it could be someone who has been a victim and wants revenge and is satisfied if he sees others humiliated with or without the presence of an audience.

The following definition and understanding of cyberbullying from several book sources:

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  • According to Willard (2005), cyberbullying is a cruel treatment that is done intentionally to others by sending or circulating harmful materials or engaging in forms of social aggression using the internet or other digital technology.
  • According to Nurjanah (2014), cyberbullying is aggressive, intense, repetitive behavior carried out by individuals and individuals by using forms of technological and electronic use as a medium to attack certain people.
  • According to Bauman (2008), cyberbullying is the use of modern communication technology aimed at humiliating, insulting, playing with or intimidating individuals to control and regulate the individual.
  • According to William and Guerra (2007), cyberbullying is an action aimed at someone through text messages, e-mails, picture or video messages that aim to make fun of, curse and threaten.
  • According to Kowalski, et al (2007), cyberbullying is aggression that is carried out deliberately and repeatedly carried out in an electronic context (such as, e-mail, blog, instant message, text message) against someone who cannot easily defend himself.

Cyberbullying forms

According to Willard (2005), forms of cyberbullying include the following:

  1. Flaming . Flaming is a behavior in the form of sending text messages with harsh words, and frontal. This treatment is usually done in a chat group on social media such as sending pictures intended to insult the intended person.
  2. Harassment . Harassment is the behavior of sending messages with disrespectful words, addressed to someone in the form of a disorder sent via email, sms, or text message, on a social network continuously. Harassment is the result of long-term flaming actions. Harassment is done by reciprocating messages or it can be called a text war.
  3. Denigration . Denigration is the behavior of indulgence in someone’s ugliness on the internet with the intention of damaging the reputation and reputation of the person being addressed. Like someone who sends pictures of someone who has been changed before to be more sensual so that the victim is mocked and get a bad evaluation from others.
  4. Impersonation . Impersonation is the behavior of pretending to be someone else and sending messages or statuses that are not good.
  5. Outing and Trickery . Outing is the behavior of spreading the secrets of others, or personal photos of others. Trickery is the behavior of persuading someone with tricks to get the secret or a personal photo of that person.
  6. Exclusion . Exclusion is intentional and cruel behavior to get someone out of an online group.
  7. Cyberstalking . Cyberstalking is the behavior of repeatedly sending dangerous threats or intimidating messages using electronic communication.

Cyberbullying Elements

According to Kowalski et al (2008), there are several elements in the cyberbullying process, namely:

a. Actors (Cyberbullies)

Characteristics of children who become cyberbullying perpetrators are having a dominant personality and being easy and violent. Tend to be more temperamental, impulsive and easily frustrated with the circumstances that are being experienced. More often violence toward others and aggressive attitude towards adults compared to other children. Difficult to obey the rules. Looks strong and shows a low level of empathy for the person he bullies. Good at manipulating and dodging the difficult situations faced. Often involved in proactive aggression, deliberate aggression for specific purposes and reactive aggression, defensive reactions when provoked.

b. Victims (victims)

A teenager who is usually the target of cyberbullying is usually those who differ in education, race, weight, disability, religion and those who tend to be sensitive, passive, are considered weak and usually those who rarely hang out or go out of the house. The characteristics of adolescents who are targeted or victims of cyberbullying are sensitive, withdrawing from the social environment, passive, experiencing problems with mental retardation, often allowing others to control themselves, and tend to be depressed. In several studies victims of cyberbullying tend to have lower self-esteem than their peers. This makes him experience social anxiety and tends to avoid social contact.

c. Witness (bystander)

The witness of the event is someone who witnessed the attack on the victim’s bullying behavior. Witnesses of events can join the web and leave painful comments, or do nothing but, observe bullying behavior. Bystander is divided into two, namely:

  1. Harmful bystander , an observer who supports the incident of bullying or continues to observe the incident and does not provide any assistance to the victim.
  2. Helpful bystander , an observer who tries to stop bullying by giving support to the victim or telling people who have more authority.

Cyberbullying Characteristics

According to Safaria et al. (2016), cyberbullying generally has the following characteristics:

  1. Cyberbullying that is done repeatedly . Cyberbullying does not usually occur only once, but is repeated, unless it is a threat of murder or a serious threat to someone’s life.
  2. Psychologically torturing . Cyberbullying causes psychological torture for its victims. Victims usually receive treatment such as slander / rumors, distribution of photos and videos of victims with the aim of embarrassing the victim.
  3. Cyberbullying is done with a purpose . Cyberbullying is done because the offender has goals, such as to humiliate the victim, revenge, deal with the stress of the conflict, and just for fun.
  4. Happening in cyberspace . Cyberbullying is done by using Information Technology tools, such as social networking and text messaging.

Cyberbullying victims tend to surrender when they get a disturbance from the perpetrators. They hold back feelings that cause low self-esteem. Feeling disorders such as fear, anxiety, sadness and anger appear and interfere with their activities. These disturbances are forms of uncertainty both toward oneself and to the behavior of others. As according to Priyatna (2010), victims who experience cyberbullying usually have the following characteristics:

  1. Looks reluctant when you have to use a computer or other technological device.
  2. Withdraw from family or friends.
  3. Do not want to go to school or other social activities.
  4. Avoid immediately when discussing the use of technological devices.
  5. Showing negative emotions (sad, angry, frustrated and worried).
  6. Learning achievement is decreasing.
  7. Lack of sleep and decreased appetite.

Cyberbullying Crimes

The legal basis for aspects of cyberbullying in Indonesia has been regulated in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 concerning Electronic Information and Transactions (ITE) . In the law there are articles which are suitable for snaring cyberbullying perpetrators with a penalty of 6 to 12 years in prison and fines of 1 to 2 billion rupiah, namely:

  1. Article 27 . Any person intentionally and without the right to distribute and / or transmit and / or make access to Electronic Information and / or Electronic Documents that have content that violates decency (paragraph 1), content of defamation and / or defamation (paragraph 3), content extortion and / or threats (paragraph 4).
  2. Article 28 paragraph 2 . Every person intentionally and without the right to spread information intended to incite hatred or hostility of certain individuals and / or groups of people based on ethnicity, religion, race, and between groups (SARA).
  3. Article 29 . Each person intentionally and without the right to send Electronic Information and / or Electronic Documents containing threats of violence or intimidation that is intended personally.

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