Cardiac tumors

Tumors are any lump that is due to an increase in the number of cells that compose it, regardless of whether they are benign or malignant. Primary tumors of the heart are rare and 80% of them are benign; myxomas reach 50% of tumors.

Summary

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  • 1 Classification
  • 2 Minor cardiac tumors
  • 3 Rhabdomyomas
  • 4 Intrammular fibroma
  • 5 Myxomas
  • 6 Sarcoma
  • 7 Clinical picture
  • 8 Conclusions
  • 9 Sources

Classification

  1. Clinically unimportant.
  2. Intramural fibroids.
  3. Pericardial tumors.
  4. Miscellaneous tumors.

Minor cardiac tumors

  • Congenital blood cysts . Small red nodules found on the valves. They are usually multiple and rarely larger than 1 mm, which disappear after some

weeks or months of life.

  • Focal myxomas . Silent at birth and made of myxedema tissue.
  • Lambé excrescences . Small hairy projections on the free edge of the valves. It consists of a fibrous and elastic tissue covered by endocardium.

Rhabdomyomas

They have been described between 6 and 45 years of age. 50% of cases are associated with tuberous sclerosis. It is seen as a nodular protrusion through the epicardium; Its size ranges from 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter, located in the myocardium. Histologically it is made up of muscle fibers and protoplasmic stroma and nucleus towards the periphery of the cell.

Intrammular fibroma

It is a tumor of the myocardium of the left ventricle and the ventricular septum. Microscopically it has collagen bands, fibroblasts, and muscle fibers between them.

Myxomas

It is one of the most frequent and is reported from fetal life to 60 years of age. 75% is located in the left atrium and 25 in the right. More rarely they are located in the ventricles or both atria. Friable myxedema tumor can cause pulmonary or peripheral thromboembolism.

Sarcoma

They have been described from 3 to 80 years of age. They metastasize early to the lung, liver, and lymph nodes. Pericardial tumors These make up 20% of cardiac tumors and include teratomas, fibroids, lipomas, angiomas, and leiomyofibromas.

Clinical picture

The clinical picture depends on the location of the tumor in the heart, which can be in the pericardium, intramural or intracavitary. Intramural tumors grow very slowly and appear on radiographic view of the chest as projected masses of the left ventricle and calcification of the tumor. Tumors located in the cavity can cause significant murmur, neurological signs, and loss of consciousness. Electrocardiographic examination revealed negative T waves, left ventricular growth, or combined. They can manifest cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and more rarely heart attack. Pericardial tumors and cysts cause alterations of the cardiac contour in the frontal radiological view of the chest. Pericardial tumors cause pericardial effusion, particularly in children suffering from teratomas, they are profuse and sometimes bloody. EKG tracing is low-voltage or normal. In adults, metastatic tumors are more frequent than primary tumors and reach the heart through the blood or lymphatic pathway. Melanoma is the tumor that has the highest incidence in affecting the heart, such as carcinoma of the thyroid, liver and kidney.

Conclusions

  1. On chest radiography a protrusion from the left ventricle.
  2. An electrocardiographic examination that shows a Q wave or ST segment elevation and abnormal T waves.
  3. Underlying diseases such as leukemia, tuberous sclerosis, or a malignant tumor elsewhere in the body.
  4. Significant murmur that varies with changes in body position.
  5. Persistent spill in a child.
  6. If a cardiac tumor is suspected, complete the study with an echocardiogram and computed tomography.

 

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