Biblical Archeology . Branch of Archeology , which is dedicated to investigating archaeological data related to the Bible . Since the mid- 19th century and throughout the 20th century, the Bible has been credited for numerous archaeological discoveries, which have demonstrated its historical reliability. In the words of the famous archaeologist Nelson Glueck : “It can be stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has contradicted any Biblical reference.”
Historical schools like Tubingen have had to rethink their questions to the Biblical historical record several times. Topics that were considered “myths” in the Bible have been historically confirmed by archeology. As the archaeologist WF Albright records: “The excessive skepticism manifested towards the Bible by important historical schools of the 18th and 19th centuries, certain phases of which still appear periodically, has been progressively discredited. Discovery after discovery has established the accuracy of numerous details, and has grown the recognition of the value of the Bible as a historical source. ”
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- 1 Old Testament
- 1 Universal Flood
- 2 New Testament
- 1 Luke’s testimony
- 3 The archaeological method
- 4 Bibliography
- 5 Sources
During Ur’s excavations in 1929 Sir Leonard Woolley tripped over a 2.4-3.3 m layer of water-covered clay. of thickness. He was convinced that he had found the slime deposited by the flood. Similar layers were found in other places, but they were of a different date. These findings show that Babylon was subject to severe flooding in the past. Written traditions are so strong that a catastrophic flood must have occurred in Babylon early in the history of man.
Once upon a time, scholars dismissed Luke’s work , taking it for an imaginary story written a century after Paul’s time. However, when detailed issues like official titles are examined in the book , it turns out to be remarkably accurate.
Titles: The titles that occur in the inscriptions and in other ancient writings with the same reference as in the Acts are:
– “Proconsul” (Anthupatos) in Cyprus, from 22 BC onwards (He 13.7). Each new excavation and each new discovery sheds invaluable light on the Holy Land and neighboring nations, and thus allows us to better understand the eternal message of God in the historical context.
– “City authorities” (politarchai) in Thessalonica, later replaced by “councilmen” (He 17.6): this is known from several inscriptions, but in no book other than Acts.
– “Principal authorities” (asiarchai) in Ephesus, capital of the province of Asia (He 19.31). Other provincial capitals often had a single man in charge.
– “The principal” (protos) of Malta, also known by a Greek and a Latin inscription (He 28.7).
Regarding other technical terms of administration and customs, the Acts perfectly reflect the 1st century AD. This is what the Gospels do. Pontius Pilate was officially prefect of Judea ; the title of procurator, it seems, was applied to his successors after AD 54: A stone with an inscription found in the Roman theater at Caesarea gives Pilate the title of “prefect of Judea”, and the Gospels and Acts indicate this title in Greek and not that of procurator.
“Lucas is a world-class historian; his statements are not in fact merely trustworthy, he is possessed of true historical sense, He fixes his mind on the idea and the plan that governs the evolution of history, and adapts his treatment of incidents in proportion to the importance they have. He gives important critical events their due proportion and shows the true nature even in detail while lightly touching or entirely omitting much that had no value for its purpose. In short, this author should be placed alongside the most prominent historians. ”
Archaeologist William Ramsay
The archaeological method
Scientific archeology dates from the excavation of Tell-el-Hesi by Sir Flinders Petrie in 1890 . The years that have passed have served to perfect the archaeological method.
Previously, it was excavated in search of museum pieces and spectacular finds. Petrie first paid attention to method, detail, and preservation of the evidence obtained. Today it is excavated with precision and meticulous care because the archaeological find is only valuable if it is studied in its context. As the excavation destroys that context, it is essential to keep exact records, along with plans and photographs that allow us to reconstruct the original situation of each find.
More than lucky is the archaeologist who finds an inscription. Whether it’s an ostracon (that’s the name of the pottery helmet in which something has been written), a monumental inscription, some traces carved in stone, or a piece of papyrus or parchment such as the Dead Sea scrolls . Epigraphy is the science that deciphers the inscription and studies the evolution of writing .