Avocado

Avocado Persea americana ) . Species native to Mexico and the only one of economic importance to the Lauraceae family . It presents an increasing value in the international market, due not only to the wide possibilities for fresh and processed consumption, but also to its character as a raw material for the extraction of oil widely used in the cosmetic industry. [one]

Summary

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  • 1 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Basonym
      • 2.1 Previous basonym
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
    • 5 Varieties
      • 5.1 Clones
    • 2 Distribution
      • 1 In Cuba
    • 3 Origin of the name
    • 4 History
    • 5 Propagation
    • 6 Properties
      • 1 Medicinal
      • 2 Cosmetics
      • 3 Nutritional
    • 7 Use
      • 1 Components
    • 8 Related Links
    • 9 References
    • 10 Sources

Taxonomy

Scientific name

  • Persea americana Mill. [2] [3] [4] [5]

Authors

  • Miller, Philip
  • Posted in: The Gardeners Dictionary:. . . eighth edition sn 1768. [6]

Basonym

  • Laurus persea L. [7]

Previous basonym

  • Persea persea (L.) Cockerell [8]

Synonymy

  • Laurus persea L.

Persea American

  • Persea americana var. angustifolia Miranda
  • Persea americana var. drymifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) SFBlake
  • Persea americana var. nubigena (LOWilliams) LEKopp
  • Persea drymifolia Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Persea edulis Raf.
  • Persea floccosa Mez
  • Persea gigantea LOWilliams
  • Stay for free CFA Gaertn.
  • Persea gratissima var. drimyfolia (Schltdl. & Cham.) Mez
  • Persea gratissima var. macrophylla Meisn.
  • Persea gratissima var. oblong Meisn.
  • Persea gratissima var. praecox Nees
  • Persea gratissima var. Meisn vulgaris.
  • Persea leiogyna Blake
  • Persea nubigena LOWilliams
  • Persea nubigena var. LOWilliams guatemalensis
  • Persea paucitriplinervia Lundell
  • Persea persea (L.) Cockerell
  • Persea steyermarkii CKAllen [9] [10]

Common name

Avocado, avocado, cure, avocado or abacate.

Varieties

Avocado tree

The avocado has more than 100 varieties and clones divided into several groups: Raza Guatemalteca , Races Antillanas , Races Mexicana . Among those recommended for cultivation on a commercial scale are: Princesa, Linda, Tonnage, Schaff, Choquette, Luiz de Queiroz, Monroe, Taylor, Waldin, Fairchild and Pollock.

The varieties: Princesa, Waldin, Fairchild and Pollock are recommended to be planted in areas below 700 meters. high above sea level. The varieties: Nelan, Russell and Simmonds, which belong to group A, can also be included in this group.

The varieties: Linda, Tonnage, Schaff, Choquette, Luiz de Queiroz, Monroe and Taylor can be planted at heights between 500 and 1,500 meters. above sea level. For heights above 1,500 meters, varieties of the Mexican race or its hybrids can be planted: such as Fuerte and Puebla. [eleven]

Clones

The creole clones have a great development, the varieties of the Guatemalan breed (Choquette, Yon, Linda, Luiz de Queiroz, Monroe, Schaff), have a lesser development. The Antillean varieties (Pollock, Fairchild, Nelan, Russell, Simmond, Catalina, Princesa, Waldin), less development and the varieties of the Mexican race (Mexicola, Ganter, Duke, Fuerte and Puebla), less development compared to all clones .

The varieties: Russell, Catalina, Fairchild, Winlowson, and Tonnage, grow erect, columnar in appearance; while the varieties; Pollock, Simmonds, Nelan, Princesa, Choquette, Schaff, Monroe, Luiz de Queiroz, tend to grow spherically. [12]

One of the best known and widely accepted clones is Catalina.

Distribution

Belize , Bolivia , Brazil , Cameroon , Chile , Colombia , Costa Rica , Cuba , Dominica , Ecuador , El Salvador , the United States , the Philippines , Gabon , Guatemala , Guyana , Honduras , Mexico , Nicaragua , Panama , Paraguay , Peru , Puerto Rico , Dominican Republic, Tanzania , Trinidad and Tobago , Venezuela . [13]

In Cuba

Fruit

This valuable fruit tree, widely propagated in Cuba, has a wealth of extraordinary variability; Many of its clones have been made “classic” and it is recommended that the following varieties should not be missing in a collection that aims to achieve year-round harvests:

  • ‘Catalina’ (Group A, West Indian race). It is harvested from September to November.
  • ‘Choquette’ (Group A, West Indian race). It is harvested in November and December.
  • ‘Good Hope’ (Group B, West Indian race). It is harvested in July and August.
  • ‘Suardía’ (Group B, Guatemalan breed). It is harvested from December to March.
  • ‘Manteca’ (Group B, West Indian breed). It is harvested in May and June.
  • ‘Itzamná’ (Group B, Guatemalan breed). It is harvested from March to May.
  • ‘Wilson Popenoe’ (Group A, West Indian race). It is harvested in July and August.

It is important to keep clones of the three recognized breeds: Antillean (the most adapted to the country), Mexican and Guatemalan. The Mexican is unmistakable for the smell and anise flavor of its leaves. In addition, due to its botanical value, curiosity and quality, it is necessary to preserve the clones ‘García # 1’, from Group A, West Indian breed and the ‘Collinson’, Guatemalan breed, unisexual female. The first is harvested between the second half of July and all of August and the second from October to December.

Prototype of avocado clone structure to achieve year-round harvests [14]

There are clones spontaneously emerged in patios and plots from botanical seeds, which have immense potential value to replace classic clones, such as the ‘Arturo’ of Trinidad, of the West Indian race, (excellent for the end and beginning of the year and larger than the ‘Suardía’); the ‘Chacón’, belonging to group A and to the Antillean breed, of high quality, from Las Casimbas , in Villa Clara . It is harvested in October and November; the ‘Alemán’, native to the municipality of Yaguajay , which is harvested between December and February, of the Antillean breed, as well as the ‘Fomento 2000’, a valuable late clone, obtained in the homonymous municipality of Sancti Spíritus .

Currently, the Group B clone, Hass, is propagated, of “personal” size and high quality, known worldwide for being the most widely used in exports. It is harvested in Cuba from November to March, with a maximum in February / March. This type of clone behaves better at altitudes above 500 meters above sea level, although it has been seen to produce very well in the municipality of Jagüey Grande and in high areas of Ciénaga de Zapata .

In the figure you can see a prototype of a clone structure to achieve harvest throughout the year. It is not the only alternative.

One can also speak of a “mini-structure” or a “mini-stair” of clones to foster in a courtyard, on a small plot.

With a single tree: grafting the clones ‘Catalina’, ‘Choquette’ and ‘Pollock’, in this way harvests would be obtained from July to December.

  • With two trees: graft ‘Pollock’ and ‘Catalina’ in one and ‘Manteca’ and ‘Choquette’ in the other and production would be achieved from May to December
  • In a small plot with twelve trees, one tree from each of the clones listed in the figure ensures harvest throughout the year.
  • Another variant could be to plant a grove with eight clones: ‘Catalina’, Choquette ‘,’ Buena Esperanza ‘,’ Suardía ‘,’ Manteca ‘,’ Itzamná ‘,’ Wilson Popenoe ‘and’ Pollock ‘.
  • Intercropping of clones can be done in a larger plantation, based on the dicogamic groups A and B with 75% of the preferred clone and 25% of the associated one, taking into account a larger clone alternative. [fifteen]

Name’s origin

Its name is derived from Ahuacatl , a Nahuatl word meaning “tree testicles.” In Peru it is known as Palta or Palto , which comes from the Quechua voice Pallta . The Aztecs believed that the avocado had aphrodisiac properties and linked it to the fertility gods, which is why it played a sacred role. Due to its attributes, it was prohibited during pre-Hispanic religious festivals, in which chastity should be kept.

History

Long before the arrival of the Spanish, avocado was part of the diet of the inhabitants of the American continent. The famous chronicler of the history of the conquest, Don Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo , confused avocados with pears by calling them “wild pear trees of Tierra Firme”. Other figures of the time emphasized the characteristics of the plant, as well as its consumption, medicinal and nutritional properties.

Propagation

The Spanish were in charge of its spread to other regions of America and to the warmer areas of the Old World. In Spain it was acclimatized, especially in Malaga , Murcia , Valencia and Catalonia . In Rome , in the Pincio Garden , two avocado trees remain as a memento of Maximiliano, who sent his minister in Italy the gift of a basket of avocados. Today it is appreciated as a valuable delicacy and its fame has acquired a universal character.

The avocado can be propagated by seed or by grafting. Propagation by seed is not recommended for commercial plantations due to the great variability that occurs in fruit production and quality.

Propagation by grafting is the most appropriate method to reproduce the varieties selected for commercial cultivation, since the grafted trees are uniform in terms of quality, shape and size of the fruit.The seeds must come from healthy, good-sized fruits, harvested directly from the tree. Its viability lasts up to three weeks after extraction from the fruit. It is recommended to cut the narrow part of the seed, in a section of a quarter of the total length, to help the exit of the sprout and to make a first selection, since the cut allows to eliminate the seeds that do not present the natural color yellowish white, due to rot, injury or any other damage. Immediately after cuts, they are sown in the previously prepared seedbed by placing them on the wide and flat end so that the cut part is facing up. The seeds begin to sprout approximately thirty days after sowing. Plants are generally ready to be transplanted to the nursery thirty days after germination.

Properties

Medicinal

flowers

Its medicinal virtues have been corroborated by science, for the remarkable presence of substances that nourish and help our body in the prevention of diseases.

In traditional medicine it is considered a prodigious fruit. Certain varieties of avocado possess anti-stunted qualities and high vermifugal power. The oil that is extracted from the bone or seed can be applied to the hair to prevent it from falling and also to friction to relieve gout and rheumatism. The infusion of its leaves is used to cure fever, menstrual cramps and Migraine . Avocado peel applied directly to the temples is also said to relieve headaches. In cosmetology it is used for the skin and hair with excellent results.

Cosmetics

Avocados are widely used in cosmetics for skin care, especially skin care. Due to their richness in fats, they are frequently used to make creams for dry skin or masks for wrinkles.

Nutritional

Leaf

It is a neutral fruit. It contains proteins , fats , carbohydrates , fiber , vitamins A , C , E and several of the B complex ; as well as various minerals with calcium , magnesium , potassium , iron and phosphorus standing out .

The avocado has a nutritional value equivalent to that of a serving of meat . Its pulp is a valuable source of energy, protein and minerals. Descend the values of the cholesterol undesirable and raises levels of “good” cholesterol.

It is recommended to consume it with sweet and acidic fruits , except pineapple . Not compatible with other acidic products or eggs.

It should be eaten ripe, but not decomposed, nor as a dessert , nor accompanied by spicy or bell pepper .

Recently, it has been proven that the avocado is the vegetable that contains the most carnitine , an amino acid that intervenes in the metabolism of the heart muscle , which is why it is being used in the treatment of heart disease and lack of appetite. Avocado fruits contain, on average, 80% water ; 1.12% protein ; 12.8% fat  ; 1.3% of total sugars ; 2.3% of other carbohydrates ; 1.5% raw fiber ; 1.15% ash .

Contains:

  • Water 73.23 g, Energy 160 kcal, Protein 2.00 g Total Lipids (fat) 14.66 g Ash 1.58 g, Carbohydrates 8.53 g, Fiber 6.7 g Sugars, total 0.66 g, Sucrose 0.06 g, Glucose (dextrose) 0.37 g, Fructose 0.12 g, Lactose 0.00 g, Maltose 0.00 g, Galactose 0.10 g, Starch 0.11 g, Calcium 12 mg, Iron 0 , 55 mg, Magnesium 29 mg, Phosphorus 52 mg, Potassium 485 mg, Sodium 7 mg, Zinc 0.64 mg, Copper 0.190 mg, Manganese 0.142 mg, Fluorine 7.0 mcg, Selenium 0.4 mcg, Vitamin C, ( Ascorbic acid) 10.0 mg, Thiamine 0.067 mg, Riboflavin 0.130 mg, Niacin 1.738 mg,,. Pantothenic 1,389 mg, Vitamin B 6 0.257 mg, Folates, total 81 mcg, Folic 0 mcg, Vitamin B 12 0.00 mcg, Vitamin A 146 IU, Retinol 0 mcg, Vitamin E, (alpha-tocopherol) 2.07 mg ,, Tocopherol , beta 0.05 mg, Tocopherol, gamma 0.33 mg Tocopherol, delta 0.02 mg, Vitamin K, (phylloquinone) 21.0 mcg, Saturated fatty acids 2,126 g, Á. monounsaturated fats 9,799 g, Á. polyunsaturated fats 1,816 g, Cholesterol 0 mg, Stigmasterol 2 mg, Campesterol 5 mg, Beta-cytosterol 76 mg, Tryptophan 0.025 g, Threonine 0.073 g, Isoleucine 0.084 g, Leucine 0.143 g, Lysine 0.132 g, Methionine 0.038 g, Cystine 0.027 g , Phenylalanine 0.232 g, Tyrosine 0.049 g, Valine 0.107 g, Arginine 0.088 g, Histidine 0.049 g, Alanine 0.109 g, Á. Aspartic 0.236 g, Á. Glutamic 0.287 g, Glycine 0.104 g, Proline 0.098 g, Serine 0.114 g, Carotene, beta 62 mcg, Carotene, alpha 24 mcg 232 g, Tyrosine 0.049 g, Valine 0.107 g, Arginine 0.088 g, Histidine 0.049 g, Alanine 0.109 g, Á. Aspartic 0.236 g, Á. Glutamic 0.287 g, Glycine 0.104 g, Proline 0.098 g, Serine 0.114 g, Carotene, beta 62 mcg, Carotene, alpha 24 mcg 232 g, Tyrosine 0.049 g, Valine 0.107 g, Arginine 0.088 g, Histidine 0.049 g, Alanine 0.109 g, Á. Aspartic 0.236 g, Á. Glutamic 0.287 g, Glycine 0.104 g, Proline 0.098 g, Serine 0.114 g, Carotene, beta 62 mcg, Carotene, alpha 24 mcg

Use

The use of avocado in the kitchen is truly extensive. In Cuba it is basically used in salads, cut into elegant slices or large dice.

There it is said that even the most modest food becomes something very special with its accompaniment. However, its culinary destination is much more comprehensive. Hundreds of recipes for this food are known: from a simple salad to an exotic avocado mousse . A pinch of salt and a few drops of lemon, to avoid darkening and pronounce its flavor, are its best companions. With avocado you can prepare various sauces, purees, cold soups, salads , fillings, pizzas , custard , smoothies and ice cream .

Fruit

Inside the fruit, the seed is appreciated

Mexican cuisine is prodigal in the use of avocado for culinary purposes. From there the famous Guacamole is known , made up of three legitimate elements: avocado, tomato and Chile . In this case, the avocado pulp is mixed with these ingredients and a few drops of lemon , coriander , garlic and salt are generally added . In that region there is a pre-Hispanic town called Tulyehualco , located at the foot of Iztaccíhuatl and Popocatépetl , with the beautiful tradition of preparing multiple varieties of fruit flavored ice creams and other less classic avocado cucumbers., Rose petals , Celery , Nopal , etc.

Some suggest that these ice creams were made with the snows of the mountain, instead of with artificial ice. In Mexico , avocado leaves are also used to season the beans and wrap some meats that are going to be roasted.

All its values ​​contribute to endorse the genuine place it occupies at our table and with great joy we assume it as a defining element of the food wealth of Cuba and the world.

Components

  • Leaves: essential oil with estragol-methylchavicol, alfa-pinene and other terpenes, flavonoids and tannins.
  • Fruit: contains vitamins A and E, lipids, proteins, carotenoids, glycosides and sesquiterpenes.
  • Seeds: Contains fatty acids, starch, and other carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, and proanthocyanins.

 

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