Abortion Risks and Legal Consequences

There are various reasons for a woman to have an abortion. However, it should be known that abortion has medical and legal risks, especially if it is done illegally. The risk will increase if the abortion is not performed by a doctor.

Abortion is the act of terminating a pregnancy. There are various reasons for a woman to have an abortion, including pregnancy out of wedlock, economic inability, lack of family support, and problems with a partner. On the other hand, abortion can also be done if the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother or fetus.

Various Abortion Methods

There are two methods used in abortion, namely the use of drugs and medical procedures. The following is an explanation of the two methods:

Abortion method using drugs

Abortion with this method is done by giving oral or injectable drugs that can block the hormone progesterone , so that the lining of the uterus thins. This causes the fetus to be unable to attach and grow in the uterine wall.

The effect of drugs used for abortion will also cause the uterus to contract, so that the embryo or fetal tissue will be removed through the vagina.

Abortion method with medical action

The most commonly used medical procedure for abortion is vacuum aspiration. This action is usually done when a new pregnancy enters the first trimester.

There are two tools that are generally used to remove the embryo from the uterus through this action, namely manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and electric vacuum aspiration (EVA).

MVA is performed using a manual suction tube, while EVA uses an electric pump.

For abortion at a gestational age of more than 4 months, the medical action used is dilation and evacuation (D&E). This method uses surgical equipment to open the cervix and suction the fetus so that it can be removed from the uterus.

Various Risks of Abortion

Just like every other medical action, abortion also has risks , especially if it is done in a place with limited facilities, not by medical personnel, there is no underlying medical condition, and it is done with unsafe methods.

Abortion risks include:

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Injury to the uterus or infection due to an incomplete abortion
  • Infertility
  • Ectopic pregnancy in subsequent pregnancies
  • Cervical conditions that are not optimal due to multiple abortions

All abortion methods have risks or complications. Gestational age also plays a role in determining the level of risk. The older the pregnancy, the higher the risk of abortion.

Dangerous Abortion Category

The following are the categories of unsafe abortions according to the World Health Organization (WHO):

  • Done by people who do not have adequate medical expertise in the field of abortion.
  • Done in a place with facilities that do not meet the hygiene requirements.
  • Done using inappropriate equipment.

In addition, dangerous abortions are also performed by consuming drugs or using certain aids without a doctor’s supervision.

Abortion Actions for Medical Interests

In Indonesia, regulations on abortion are contained in Law Number 36 of 2009 on Health and the Criminal Code (KUHP). In the law, everyone is generally prohibited from having an abortion.

However, based on article 75 of the Health Law, abortion can be performed for the following medical reasons:

  • There are medical emergency indications in early pregnancy that threaten the life of the mother and/or fetus
  • The fetus suffers from severe genetic abnormalities or congenital defects that cannot be cured, making it difficult for the fetus to survive outside the womb
  • Pregnancy occurs as a result of rape that causes trauma

Abortion performed outside of the above conditions is declared illegal. In article 194 of the Health Law, anyone involved in an illegal abortion can be sentenced to a maximum of 10 years in prison and a maximum fine of Rp 1 billion.

Legally Allowed Abortion

Abortion due to rape is specifically described further in Government Regulation No. 61 of 2014 about Reproductive Health or PP Kespro as an implementing regulation of the Health Law.

In article 31 of the regulation, it is stated that abortion can only be performed at a maximum gestational age of 40 days counted from the first day of the last menstrual period (HPHT) based on a doctor’s certificate.

In addition, in article 34 (2b) it is also mentioned about the condition of having an abortion, namely the presence of evidence from investigators, psychologists, or other experts that confirm the alleged rape .

Therefore, the victim needs to report the rape incident to the nearest police station as soon as possible. The police will take the victim to the police station which has a Women and Child Services (PPA) unit. From the PPA unit, the victim will then be taken to the police referral hospital to undergo the visa process.

If the victim needs psychological counseling, the PPA unit will make a referral to the Integrated Service Center for the Empowerment of Women and Children (P2TP2A) for further assistance.

Victims of rape or acts of violence can also contact the National Commission Against Violence against Women (Komnas Perempuan) for help and support.

Consider various aspects before you perform or engage in the act of abortion. Don’t let that endanger your own life.


by Abdullah Sam
I’m a teacher, researcher and writer. I write about study subjects to improve the learning of college and university students. I write top Quality study notes Mostly, Tech, Games, Education, And Solutions/Tips and Tricks. I am a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

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