Histopathology is the microscopic analysis of tissues that are removed from patients when a biopsy is performed. HCMV infection can be easily observed with the use of staining techniques, such as hematoxylin-eosin (HE) or pap smear. The examination reveals the presence of infected cells in any body tissue, in the urine sediment, gastric and bronchoalveolar lavage and other materials.
Histologically, HCMV infection is proven by the presence of cytomegalic cells with a dense corpuscle of intranuclear basophilic and central inclusion in an owl’s eye or owl’s eye. A highly specific method for determining the involvement of HCMV in the researched tissue.
The word “histopathology” is derived from a combination of three Greek words:
histos means tissue,
pathos means illness or suffering, and
logos refer to study in this context.
Hence histopathology is the study of microscopic changes or abnormalities in the tissues that are caused as a result of disease.
What is a Histopathologist?
A histopathologist is a clinical laboratory physician who specializes in detecting and analyzing diseases in body tissue samples.He or she plays a very important role in confirming patient diagnoses and determining the best course of treatment for various conditions.Using sophisticated laboratory equipment and techniques, a histopathologist can identify viruses, bacteria, cancer and other abnormalities at the cellular level.
Most professionals work in hospitals and specialized clinics, although some histopathologists are employed by private research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and animal care centers.Histopathologists use microscopes, chemical dyes, lasers and scalpels to carefully investigate the components of tissue samples. With the help of histology technicians and other specialists, a histopathologist can identify a particular disease and advise doctors on the best ways to treat it.
To ensure accuracy, he may need to review the established research literature on a disease.The doctor keeps detailed notes on laboratory procedures and writes official reports on his findings.A number of histopathologists specialize in certain types of tissue or certain diseases to provide specialized analysis of samples. Some professionals focus on the heart and blood vessels, for example, while others investigate problems related to the lungs or the brain.
A histopathologist may also focus on diagnosing cancer, viral infections or autoimmune disorders.Some histopathologists choose to work in veterinary medicine, applying the same skills used in hospital laboratories to detect diseases in animal tissues. Others conduct forensic investigations, participating in autopsies to discover the causes of death and assist in criminal investigations.
In addition, a histopathologist can conduct general scientific research at a university or pharmaceutical company to examine the effects of drugs on different diseases, in order to help establish better treatment methods.A person who wants to become a histopathologist must first obtain a diploma from an accredited four-year medical school. After graduation, a new doctor usually begins a three to four year residency program in a hospital laboratory to gain first-hand experience in the practice of histology and pathology. During a residency, an individual attends regular lectures and works alongside established pathologists to master the skills needed to do the job.
- Pathological anatomy is a morphological discipline applied to the clinic.
- The ultimate goal of the pathological anatomist is to try to frame the diseases on the morphological level: macroscopic (on cadavers, on organs or on biopsies) and microscopic (histological, cytological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultra-structural).
- Final result is the report.
- It is necessary to know the morphological and functional alterations that occur in the cells and tissues (pathological histology) in order to understand the morphological and functional changes that occur in the organs and systems (pathological anatomy).
Meaning and use of pathological histology
- Cell : it is the smallest unit of living substance capable of independent existence.
- Tissue : it is the set of multiple cells having the same function.
- Organ : it is the set of several fabrics.
- Apparatus : it is the set of several organs with related functions.