Family resilience is derived from two languages, namely resilience and family. according to Law No. 10 of 1992 concerning population development and development of a prosperous family . The definition of family resilience is the dynamic condition of a family that has resilience and resilience, and contains physical-material and psychic mental-spiritual abilities to live independently, and develop themselves and their families to live in harmony and improve physical and mental well-being .
According to Sunarti (2001), family resilience is the family’s ability to manage resources and the problems it faces, to meet the needs of its members. Family resilience consists of three latent variables, namely physical, social, and psychological resilience; and divided into 10 sub variables, namely: physical resources, non-physical resources, physical family problems, non-physical family problems, overcoming physical family problems, overcoming non-physical family problems, physical welfare, physical social welfare, non-physical social welfare, and psychological well-being.
The Concept of Family Resilience
The concept of family resilience originates from the study of children who continue to function competently despite experiencing many psychological disorders. The phenomenon in which a person can endure various problems is known as resilience . Resilience is also defined as a process where there is an interaction between risk and protective factors. The process by which these protective factors pose a risk.
In the perspective of psychology, the concept of family resilience is built on the development of competence-based and strength-oriented family paradigms to help gain an understanding of how a family displays resilience when tested with various difficulties. The concept of family resilience as a characteristic, dimension, and nature of the family where these things make the family resistant to the disturbances faced from the changes that occur and can adapt in dealing with various crisis situations and life problems .
Family resilience concerns the ability of individuals or families to exploit their potential to face life’s challenges, including the ability to restore family functions to normal in the face of challenges and crises. Family resilience ( family strengths or family resilience ) is a holistic concept that arranges the flow of thinking of a system, starting from the quality of resource resilience and coping strategies. Resilience family ( Family Resilience) is a dynamic process in the family to make a positive adaptation to the dangers from the outside and from within the family .
So that family resilience is the ability of a family to overcome the problems of threats, obstacles and disturbances that come both from within and from outside which can lead to conflicts and divisions in the family, as well as the ability of the family to develop the potential of family members in achieving goals and ideals in a family. family .
Families also face g angguan / threat from various aspects of the social, economic and natural environment can lead to fragility of the family in various aspects, such as social, economic and environmental. According to UNDP 2000, the impact of all these disturbances depends on how big the threat is. The types of threats / vulnerabilities are:
- The fragility of the economic aspects ( e conomic v ulnerability ) which is a macro pressures including family economic pressure on the production, distribution and consumption of the family economy.
- The fragility of the environmental aspects ( e nvironmental v ulnerability ) which is an external pressure coming from the ecological system of natural resources ( natural eco-systems ).
- The fragility of the social aspect ( s ocial v ulnerability ) which is an external pressure related to social stability and social problems of society.
Meanwhile, according to Martinez , etc. (2003), what is called a strong and successful family is in another sense of family resilience as follows:
- Strong in the health aspect, the indicator is that the family feels maximum physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually.
- Strong in the economic aspect, the indicator is that the family has sufficient economic resources to meet their daily needs ( a living wage ) through employment opportunities, ownership of a certain amount of assets and so on.
- Strong in a healthy family life, the indicator is how the family is skilled in managing risks, opportunities, conflicts and nurturing to achieve life satisfaction.
- Strong in the educational aspect, the indicator is the readiness of the child to study at home and school until it reaches the desired level of education with the involvement and support of the role of parents until the child reaches success.
- Strong in the aspects of social life, the indicator is if the family has balanced support between formal and informal members of the community, such as pro-social relationships among community members, support from friends, family and so on, and
- Strong in addressing cultural differences in society through personal interaction skills with various cultures.
Indicators of Family Resilience
According to the authors, the family Resilience is divided into five, namely 1) the resilience of religion, 2) physical endurance, 3) k etahanan p sikis, 4) economic resilience, and5) social resilience. Religious resilience is the ability of families to increase religious belief in the form of worship, Indonesia as a religious country of course religious resilience is important, because the development of atheism and communism can endanger the survival of a family and even a country, worship is a basic human need to be able to give thanks to God , because with closeness to God, the family will be able to overcome problems. The second is physical endurance, which is the family’s ability to maintain physical health, because if they are physically unhealthy, it will become a problem and have an impact on the psychological condition of family life.
The third is k etahanan p sikologis, family. Psychological resilience is the ability of family members to manage their mental health, both in managing their emotions, managing stress, life motivation, communication with family members, so that family members develop and carry out their functions properly, because many divorce cases are found due to communication problems and problematic partner’s mental health.
The fourth is economic resilience, is the ability of a family to meet their daily needs, both for food, clothing, shelter and entertainment, economic resilience is quite important because a family whose life needs are not properly fulfilled will have an impact on the quality of life and ways of solving family problems. The fifth is social resilience, social resilience is the strength of the family in the application of values, culture and norms in society, social resilience includes how a family interacts with the social environment, because with healthy social relationships, a family can develop well and be able to adapt to the environment in the community. wherever he is so that family life can go well.