What is Central America?

We explain everything about Central America, the languages ​​and religion of this territory. In addition, its characteristics, climate, flora, fauna and more.

The population of Central America is approximately 44,680,000 inhabitants.

What is Central America?

Central America, also known as Central America and Central America, is nothing less than the point of arrival for European settlers and conquerors , who would later connect this New World with Europe , Asia , Oceania, and Africa . This area is part of what is recognized as Latin America ( Latin America ), although it has its own characteristics that define its culture, idiosyncrasy and values.

The  population of Central America is approximately 44,680,000 inhabitants, in an area of ​​522,760 km 2 ; the political division of continental Central America includes seven countries: Belize, Guatemala , El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama. We see below its general characteristics.

See also: Anglo-Saxon America .

Location and extent of Central America

Central America is defined as the territorial strip that extends between North America (from the isthmus of Tehuantepec) and South America (border with Colombia, on the isthmus of Panama).

To the west is the Pacific Ocean , and to the East (where the Caribbean islands are located, considered a semi-independent part of Central America) is the Atlantic Ocean , connected to each other by the Panama Canal .

Housing data for Central America

Central America has an area of ​​522,760 square kilometers.

With an approximate population of 44,680,000 inhabitants, and an area of ​​522,760 km 2 , the political division of continental Central America includes seven countries : Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama. Five Mexican states are also integrated in Central America: Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Tabasco and Yucatán.

Central American language and religion

There is a great predominance of Christianity (87%: 49% Catholicism, 33% Protestantism, 2% other forms of Christianity ), including very low percentages of indigenous religions, Judaism , Buddhism and others.

In almost all of its territory, Spanish / Castilian is spoken as the official language, except in Belize where the official language is English, as in many areas of the Caribbean). The original dialects are also common in the various areas.

Ethnography and indigenous populations of Central America

The population of Central America is mostly mestizo.

At the time of European colonization, Central America was an area densely populated by pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Mayas (predominantly), Incas , Payas, Lencas, Pipiles, Kunas, Chortíes, Jicaques, Chorotegas, Nasos, Bribris and others, which later suffered from the miscegenation with Creole, Afro-American and European populations, among others. Therefore, the highest percentage of the population is mestizo, with a predominance of white ethnic groups only in Costa Rica.

Central America Independence

As of the Spanish conquest, Central America was ruled by the Spanish Monarchy from which it effectively became independent on September 15, 1821, today the official date (except for Panama: November 28). Soon Central America was annexed to the Mexican Empire (on January 5, 1822), to later establish the United Provinces of Central America on July 5, 1823.

Central America Climate

In the highest areas of Central America the annual average temperature is 20 ° C.

The region has a tropical climate throughout the year, with a marked temperature range between day and night , which makes it a special tourist attraction. The Atlantic zone has the greatest amount of rainfall .

In the central zone and towards the Pacific, the pre-mountain zone, the climate is defined in a permanent thermal summer , with abundant rainfall, and at higher altitudes (mountain zone) the temperatures are more temperate (15-25 ° C) with seasonal of precipitations in the summer months. At the highest altitudes the annual average temperature is 20 ° C, the coldest territory in the region.

Central American economy and resources

The main economic force in Central America can be considered agriculture ( coffee , banana, sugar cane and cotton , mainly, with some livestock), although the manufacturing industry and the treatment of raw materials has gained territory in the Central American economy (rubber, sugar, coffee, wood , cotton / fabrics and fish , mainly).

Its main exports are from the automotive industry, agricultural and textile productions, and fresh and processed foods. Also the mining industry (stones and precious metals ) is significant, and tourism is a prominent economic engine, especially in coastal areas.

Transportation and trade routes of America

Central America has numerous prominent ports such as the Panama Canal.

At the internal economic and commercial level, the majority of the means of transport is land , with motorized vehicles and railways. For international trade, the region has numerous prominent ports, such as Puerto Cortes (Honduras), Acajutla (El Salvador), Corinto (Nicaragua), Puerto Limón (Costa Rica), Bahía Las Minas (Panama) and, of course, the Canal from Panama.

Flora and fauna of Central America

Central America has birds such as toucans, parrots and quetzals.

Despite representing only 1% of the earth’s surface, Central America has 8% of the planet’s natural reserves . There are 22 life zones, 17 ecological regions, and there are more than 20,000 plant species, with 144 protected areas and 124 natural parks.

The representative fauna highlights species such as the margay, the ocelot, the jaguar, the opossum, the puma, the gray fox , the coyote, the armadillo, the anteater and bezudo, the manatee, the green turtle , the iguana, and others, including amphibians , snakes (such as the boa constrictor) and birds (quetzals, parrots, toucans). In the water, the shark population stands out, among many other fish . This area is known for hosting numerous coral reefs.

Insular Central America

Also defined as Central America and the Antilles, insular Central America includes the Caribbean and the Antilles Archipelago. This area, in turn, is divided into three:

  • Greater AntillesHaiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Cuba.
  • Lesser AntillesBarbados, Grenada, Dominica, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Vincent, Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Kitts, Nevis.


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