The forests are ecosystems abundant in tall vegetation, usually trees and leafy plants and wide glass, which also provide habitat for a large number of animal species.
The forests are widely distributed on the planet , adapted to different climates and high humidity conditions and, therefore play an important role in the global carbon cycle the.
A forest may consist of a large group of plant species, or have a majority presence of the same type of tree. There are no fixed criteria to distinguish a forest from other zonal agglomerations of trees , although the term jungle is often preferred for very lush and abundant tropical rainforests, as well as groves for smaller and less dense areas or forest and park for more controlled, usually intervened by the hand of man.
According to the type of vegetation, they are classified into:
- Broadleaf forest (leafy) . Much richer in species, often similar or close to the forests.
- Acicular leaf forest (conifers) . Typical of cold areas, they are usually characterized by a predominance of quality wood trees and gymnosperm vegetation .
- Mixed forests . Where the previous two are combined.
According to their foliage seasonality, there are two types:
- Evergreen forests . Those always green, without loss (or with a minimum) of leaves.
- Deciduous forests . Those who lose foliage in certain seasons and then green.
According to latitude and climate, they are classified as:
- Tropical forests . Known as “jungles”, they are abundant and leafy, with a warm and very humid climate, located in the belt of the equator.
- Subtropical forests . Usually abundant, either wet or dry and of wide variability
- Temperate forests . People warm and cold temperate areas with abundant coniferous vegetation.
- Boreal forests . Located in the areas near the poles, they resist the subpolar climate.
According to the altitude at which they grow, they can be:
- Lowland forests . They can be basal, plain or flood.
- Mountain forests . In turn divided into premontane, montane or subalpine.
Sequoias forests. In their two most famous varieties, Sequoiadendron giganteum and Sequoia sempervirens , these trees are considered the largest and tallest in the world, respectively . They are characteristic of the United States, especially in the Yosemite and Redwood National Parks, both of historical and forestry importance.
Andean Patagonian forest . Also known as the Valdivian cold forest , it is located in southern Chile and western Argentina, in a humid, temperate and mountain area near the Andes Mountains.
Boulogne Forest . With an area of 846 hectares, equivalent to double the New York Central Park , it is a Parisian public park and the main ones in Europe. It contains an abundant vegetation of wide woods, controlled and domesticated to achieve an area of recreation or urban recreation.
Hayedo de Montejo . Beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica ) of 250 hectares, located north of the province of Madrid, bordering the Jarama river, in Spain. It is one of the southernmost beech forests on the continent and a site of national interest since 1974.
Russian taiga . The taiga or boreal forests typical of the Siberian region are abundant despite their extreme temperatures (19 ° C in summer and -30 ° C in winter), with annual rainfall of 450mm. That means that the plants have a favorable period of four months a year, despite which the evergreen conifers often exceed 40m in height .
Bavarian Forest . Located in Bavaria, in southern Germany, it extends to Austria and Czechoslovakia, where it acquires other names ( Sauwald and Bohemian Forest, respectively). It is an important European nature reserve and a source of abundant tourism , since in its interior is the Bavarian Forest National Park.
Magellan subpolar forest . Located in the southern stretches of the Andes, as well as in Tierra del Fuego, it shares many of its plant species with other southern forests in Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand, although it also has endemic species as a certain type beech . Their climates range between 6 and 3 ° C depending on how close they are to Antarctica.
Sainte Baume Forest . Known as the “forest of Mary Magdalene” and close to Marseille, France, it is considered a mystical forest because it contains the cave in which the biblical character allegedly died after his expulsion from Palestine . The forest has a length of almost 12 kilometers along a rocky cliff and is today a pilgrimage center of French Provence.
Conguillío National Park . Located in the Chilean Araucanía, it has an area of 60,832 hectares of a varied and unique flora of the region, whose predominance of araucarias and coigües reminds of prehistoric times . The relative humidity of the area is low, but cold weather during winter usually involves large frosts.
Canaima National Park . Located in the state of Bolivar, Venezuela, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994 and the sixth largest national park in the world. It extends over an area of 30,000 km 2 , to the border with Guyana and Brazil, and has more than 300 endemic plant species.
Great Smoky Mountains National Park . It is a forested mountain range between the states of North Carolina and Tennessee, known as the great smoky mountains. It is the most visited national park in the United States , given its lush vegetation of humid and temperate climate, as well as the remains of the southern Appalachian culture it contains.
Forest of Fontainebleau . 60 km from Paris, this forest formerly known as the Beer Forest, has an area of 25,000 hectares, in the middle of which is the cities of Fontainebleau and Avon. Impressionist painters of the nineteenth century were often inspired by their rich network of colors for their masterpieces.
The Black Forest More a dense mountain forest than a tropical rainforest itself, this region of the German southwest has been immortalized in numerous artistic forms and is today an important natural tourist destination. It is a vegetable band 160 km long and between 30 and 60 km wide , depending on the region, in which fir trees predominate.
Styx Valley Forest . Temperate eucalyptus forest in which the tallest floral plants in the world (the Eucalyptus regnans ) are found , is located in a valley in Tasmania, in southern Australia, crossed by the Styx River. Its total area is unknown.
National Park of the Haitises . To the northwest of the Dominican Republic is an area of mogotes next to each other, populated by dense tropical vegetation in a total area of 3600 km. Its name comes from the aboriginal word to designate these sudden rocky elevations that can reach 40m in height.
Clayoquot Sound . Populated by the Nuu-Chah-Nulth indigenous peoples, this forest located on the west coast of Vancouver Island has been ravaged by the timber industry, given its plant richness of cold-weather conifers. The defense of the forest by ethnic groups and Green Peace activists set an important precedent in this type of initiatives that led to the signing of an ecological treaty in 2001.
Plitvice Lakes National Park . The best known of the national parks of Croatia and UNESCO World Heritage since 1979, covers an area of 30 thousand hectares, of which 22,000 are covered with forest, 90% of beech . This park was a candidate to be one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World in 2011.
Communal Forest of Couvet . A third of Switzerland’s surface is made up of forests. In this case, the one located in Neuchâte Switzerland, is one of the most visited by tourism and part of the very modest vegetable reserves that Europe keeps protected.
Mountains of Southwest China . One of the temperate habitats with the largest number of endemic species in Greater Asia is the home of the giant panda currently in danger of extinction. Only 8% of the forest is preserved in its ideal state , because the rest is at the mercy of indiscriminate logging and urbanization.
Constituent Forest . Located in the city of Rosario, Argentina, it is the largest green area in the city with 260 hectares . It is an area highly intervened by man, to recreate artificial lagoons and abundant roads, as well as numerous initiatives for sustainable ecological research.