Understanding Performance: Indicators, and Factors That Affect Performance

What is meant by performance? In general, the notion of performance is a work achievement or the work of a person based on the quantity and quality achieved in carrying out its functions in accordance with the responsibilities received.

The term “performance” is an abbreviation of Work Energy Kinetics which in English is called performance . In this case, the word performance generally refers to ” job performance ” or ” actual performance ” which means a work performance or actual achievement achieved by someone in carrying out their duties.

Generally, every organization is very concerned about efforts to optimize the performance of human resources (HR). So in this case, HR becomes a determining factor for the company in achieving a good performance.

Also read: Understanding Competence

Definition of Performance According to Experts

In order to better understand what performance is, we can refer to the opinions of the following experts:

  1. Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara

According to Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara (2006: 67), the notion of performance is the work of quality and quantity achieved by an employee in carrying out his duties in accordance with the responsibilities given to him

  1. Gary Dessler

According to Gary Dessler (2000: 41), performance is work performance, which is a comparison between the work results achieved and the established standards.

  1. Tb. Sjafri Mangkuprawira and Musa Hubeis

According to Mangkuprawira and Hubeis (2007: 153), the notion of performance is the result of a certain planned work process at the time and place of the employee and the organization concerned.

  1. Harold D. Stolovitch and Erica J. Keeps

According to Stolovitch and Keeps (1992), the definition of performance is a set of results achieved and refers to the act of achieving and carrying out something requested.

  1. Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard

According to Hersey and Blanchard (1993), the notion of performance is a function of one’s motivation and ability to complete a task or job.

  1. James L. Gibson, John M. Ivancevich, and James H. Donnelly

According to Gibson, Ivancevich, and Donnelly (1994), the definition of performance is the level of success of a person in carrying out the task and the ability to achieve the goals set.

Also read: Work Ethic

General Performance Indicators

A person’s performance in an organization can be assessed by several indicators. According to Stephen P Robbins, here are some indicators of an employee’s performance:

  1. Quality, which is the quality of work as measured by an employee’s perception of the quality of work produced, as well as the perfection of the task of the skills and abilities of employees.
  2. Quantity, i.e. the amount produced by an employee expressed in certain terms, such as; number of units, number of activity cycles completed.
  3. Timeliness, i.e. the level of activity completed, viewed from the perspective of coordination with the outputs, as well as maximizing the time available for other activities.
  4. Effectiveness, namely the level of use of existing resources (money, energy, raw materials, technology) optimally to improve the results of each unit in the use of these resources.
  5. Independence, which is the level of ability and commitment of an employee in carrying out their work functions responsibly.

Also read: Performance Management

Factors Affecting Performance

A person’s performance in an organization will be influenced by several factors. In general, the following are the factors that affect performance:

  1. Personal / Individual Factors, namely factors from within a person that affect performance, include: knowledge, skills ( skills ), abilities, confidence, motivation, and commitment.
  2. Leadership Factors, namely the support factor provided by superiors to someone, includes: encouragement, motivation, and direction.
  3. Team Factors, i.e. factors of support provided by co-workers to someone, include: trust in fellow team members, team member cohesiveness.
  4. System Factors, namely factors originating from the organization where a person works, include: work culture, work systems, work facilities, and others.
  5. Contextual Factors (Situational), namely factors originating from a person’s internal and external environment, including: family environment, work environment, work pressure, and others.

Employee Performance Characteristics

According to David C. Mc Cleland (Mangkunegara 2001: 68), there is a positive relationship between achievement motives and work performance. Achievement motives in a person will make him do a task with as much as possible in order to achieve commendable performance.

According to David C. Mc Cleland, here are 6 characteristics of someone who has high performance:

  1. Have a high sense of responsibility towards their duties and work.
  2. Dare to take and bear risks at work.
  3. Have reasonable and reasonable (realistic) goals at work.
  4. Have a comprehensive work plan and strive to realize a goal to be achieved.
  5. Utilizing concrete feedback in all work activities he does.
  6. Looking for opportunities to realize the plans that have been made.

Also read: Definition of Labor

Thus a brief explanation of the notion of performance, its indicators, and factors that can affect performance. Hopefully this article is useful and broadens your horizons.


by Abdullah Sam
I’m a teacher, researcher and writer. I write about study subjects to improve the learning of college and university students. I write top Quality study notes Mostly, Tech, Games, Education, And Solutions/Tips and Tricks. I am a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

Leave a Comment