Understanding of Organic Chemistry, Organic Compounds, and Examples

Basically organic chemistry is the study of living things which includes the constituents of living things and how they are structured. This branch of chemistry was initially limited to compounds produced by living things, but now organic chemistry has expanded to include artificial substances as well. The application of this science is also very large as in the pharmaceutical industry, petrochemicals, food, explosives, dyes, cosmetics, and so on. This article will discuss the understanding of organic chemistry, organic compounds, and examples.


table of contents

  • Organic Chemistry
    • Understanding Organic Chemistry
    • Hydrocarbons in Organic Chemistry
    • Definition of Functional Groups of Organic Chemistry
    • Types of Organic Compounds
      • Alcohol
      • Ether
      • Aldehydes
      • Ketone
      • Carboxylic Acid
      • Esther
      • Amine
    • Examples of Organic Chemistry Applications
      • Polymer
      • Petrochemicals
      • Perfume
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Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry has become a very creative science in chemistry where chemists have created new molecules and explored the properties of existing compounds. Organic compounds are also very closely related to human life.

In the United States, this science is also one of the supporters of very rapid economic growth in which industries in the country such as the rubber, plastic, fuel, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, detergent, and dyestuff industries apply the basic principles of organic chemistry. Very many modern and technological materials are also composed of organic compounds.

Organic chemists play a role in making new compounds and developing more effective ways to synthesize existing compounds so that they are more economically efficient. With this enormous potential, chemists classify chemistry which describes the structure of carbon in its own subfields.

Understanding Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, chemical reactions , and the making of compounds containing carbon and a number of other elements. In organic chemistry focuses on compounds made up of carbon or hydrocarbon atoms.

Then the connection with living things is all parts that involve living things such as carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, fats composed by carbon atoms and hydrogen in the form of hydrocarbons. But it is not limited to just that, there are many other compounds and materials that are composed by hydrocarbons and are included in the scope of organic chemistry. Therefore in this science will be discussed more specifically about the structure and how the formation process.

In organic chemistry, the most important thing that appears is a molecule consisting of carbon and hydrogen, but there are several other elements that are also included in organic chemistry, namely the elements nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorus, silicon, and all halogen class elements.

Generally, these elements will be bound in carbon or hydrocarbon systems with certain bonds so that they can be categorized as organic compounds.

Hydrocarbons in Organic Chemistry

Hydrocarbons are the main subject of organic chemistry so discussion of hydrocarbons is dominant in this science. Hydrocarbons are compounds consisting of elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) which are covalently bonded to form certain chains. In this case the carbon atom will bind the hydrogen atom and the carbon atom can also form chains with other carbon atoms.

Hydrocarbons are the main compounds in petroleum and natural gas so that they can function as fuels, lubricants, plastic materials, fibers, rubber, and other chemicals. Hydrocarbons can form in nature by themselves such as fuels that are formed from fossils.

Besides that another example is a rubber tree that produces rubber latex which is a hydrocarbon polymer. The chemical structure of hydrocarbons depends on the type of definition of chemical bonds that connect the atoms of the molecule.

In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons can bind with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and others to form a compound that has certain properties and of course this unique characteristic which is then utilized by humans. Hydrocarbon compounds that bind to other elements are called functional groups.

Definition of Functional Groups of Organic Chemistry

A functional group is a grouping of atoms bound to a carbon chain based on its constituent atoms and their characteristics and characteristics. With the existence of these functional groups, a hydrocarbon can experience changes in character and character that are very different from the beginning.

In this case, chemists develop this principle to improve and enhance the positive nature of a hydrocarbon chain so that organic compounds produced which have a higher value and are beneficial to human life.

Types of Organic Compounds

In organic chemistry, when a hydrocarbon molecule binds one type of functional group, it will have a different structure, characteristics and characteristics than when the molecule binds another functional group. The following are types in organic compounds based on bound functional groups:


Alcohol is an organic compound in which the carbon atom binds to the hydroxyl group (-OH). Hydroxyl consists of oxygen and hydrogen atoms which are both connected by covalent bonds. In human life, we are very often associated with alcohol.

Basically alcohol also consists of many types, for the most often we encounter in alcoholic drinks namely ethyl alcohol (ethanol) which in this type of alcohol has a structure composed of carbon chains consisting of 2 carbon atoms and binds to hydroxyl groups. The general structure of alcohol can be described as follows where R represents the hydrocarbon chain:


Ether is a hydrocarbon that binds to the ether group function (-OR) where R is in the form of another carbon chain. By analogy, this compound is almost the same as alcohol except that hydrogen bound to oxygen is removed and replaced by hydrocarbon groups. The general structure of ether compounds can be described as follows:


Aldehydes or aldehydes are organic compounds that contain carbonyl (-CO) functional groups, which are carbon atoms that bind oxygen with a double bond with two other parts of carbon bound to hydrogen and carbon chains (R).

Unlike alcohols, aldehydes do not have hydroxyl functional groups. The following is a general structure of aldehyde compounds:


Ketones are organic compounds with a hydrocarbon structure that binds to the carbonyl group. Like the alcohol-ether analogy, this also applies to aldehydes where ketones are structurally the same as aldehydes but one of the hydrogen atoms bound to carbonyl is removed and replaced by another hydrocarbon (R). Here are the general structures of ketones:

Carboxylic Acid

Carboxylic acid is an organic compound with a hydrocarbon structure that binds both the hydroxyl group and the carbonyl group called the carboxyl group. As the name implies, carboxylic acids have acidic or low pH properties.

The carboxyl group consists of carbonyl (CO) groups as well as hydroxyl (OH) groups. In this compound the hydrogen in hydroxyl is acidic which causes the pH of this compound to be low. The following is a general structure of carboxylic acids:


Esters are compounds similar to carboxylic acids, except that the hydrogen in the hydroxyl group is removed and replaced by another carbon chain. So in esters, there are two carbon chains. This ester is a derivative of carboxylic acid. The following is a general structure of the ester compound:


Amines are organic compounds that contain nitrogen atoms and consist of three bound substituents. In amines, nitrogen can bind to 3 other types of substituents such as hydrogen and carbon (alkyl) chains. The general structure of the amine can be seen below:

Examples of Organic Chemistry Applications

As already mentioned at the beginning that organic chemistry is very closely related to various fields of life, especially in the industrial field. The following are examples of applications in organic chemistry, including;


Polymers consisting of long-chain and branched molecules are one type of organic compound that is widely used. Examples of uses of this compound are the main structures of several products such as nylon, acrylic, PVC, polycarbonate, polyethylene, and cellulose.


Petrochemicals are chemicals derived from petroleum or crude oil. Separation of raw materials into organic compounds based on different boiling points. The products of petrochemical products are gasoline, plastic, detergent, coloring, food additives, natural gas and medicines.


Indeed, the various types of perfume that you use every day apart from originating from real flowers can also come from laboratory formulas. Organic compounds in perfume are designed to have the same fragrance as the original flower fragrance.

Thus the article provides an explanation of the understanding of organic chemistry, organic compounds, and examples of their application in everyday life. Hopefully this article provides insight and adds reader references as well.


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