Office layout is also referred to as the office layout . The definition of office layout itself according to Quible (Gie, 2007) is about how to use space effectively and be able to give satisfaction to employees for the work they do, and be able to give a deep impression to employees.
While another expert, Terry (Soetrisno and Brisma, 2009) provides a definition of office layout as a determination of the need for detailed use of space, in order to prepare a practical arrangement of physical factors deemed necessary for the implementation of office work at a reasonable cost .
Another expert, Gie (2007) also gave a statement that the compilation of office spatial planning must be based on the flow of office work, so that office space planning can help workers improve their productivity.
With a good arrangement of office space, there are many benefits to be gained. Some of the advantages or benefits of this office layout plan include:
- Avoiding waste of time and energy of employees, because walking back and forth is actually not necessary
- Guaranteeing the smooth process of the work concerned
- Enables efficient use of workspace, i.e. a certain floor area can be used for as many purposes as possible
- Prevent employees in other parts from being disturbed by the public who might fulfill a certain part.
Principles of Office Spatial Planning
So that the arrangement of this office space can be as effective and as efficient as possible, it is necessary to pay attention to the principles of existing office layout. The principle of spatial planning and spatial planning must be carried out appropriately.
According to Soedjadi (1990), the principles of office spatial planning and office spatial planning that need attention, include:
1 # The flow of work must be sought to move forward. So, it can reduce the likelihood of deviation-storage (crisscrosing), alternating current (back tracking), and collision-collision.
2 # Place each employee as close as possible to:
- Chairman, where he accepted his job
- Machinery, equipment and other work equipment that is most widely used.
- The leader, who must always get his guidance directly related to work and about the use of machinery, equipment and equipment.
- Another leader, whom he had to meet to hand over the work completed.
3 # Managers should make their own work rooms for each person. because, they can be seen as the center of concentration of thought (Think Tank) of the entire organization. Then the room should be equipped with Dictaphone and Megaphone, as well as other tools that can connect them with their leaders.
4 # Technical works such as typing centers, audio visual centers, reproduction, photocopying, stencils, printing and administrative work centers (administration) should be provided with separate rooms, separate from the think tank. That way, the sounds (noisy) arising from the work of these work tools can be isolated.
Also learn: Services or Office Work Products
5 # Operating room (operation room) which is one of the tools to control activities, should not be too far from the top manager’s office.
6 # Units serving the public should be placed in a room that is easy to reach, but does not interfere with overall work peace.
7 # Room for units associated with machinery, warehousing, large equipment and so on should be placed in the back area, so as to reduce noise for other units.
8 # It should be endeavored to have four places of work and their furniture that are still located, so don’t move them around, so they don’t confuse people.
9 # To maintain the flexibility of the body movements of special employees for administrative work, try to make everyone’s work space not less than 1.5 x 2 m2. In addition, it must still be taken into account that each workspace must be placed a table, chairs, cupboards, filling cabinets and so on.
10 # Seats of employees should be arranged so that they do not face one another. This is to ensure that they do not always talk to each other related to things that are not important.
11 # The aspects of employee peace and safety must be guaranteed by implementing various things such as:
- Availability of fire extinguishers or units, first aid kits, and other security equipment including security at the entrance and exit points
- There must be a special way to get out in an emergency
- Noise from machines that are working must be isolated in special ways, such as placing the machine on the window, not in the front room and not in the middle of the workspace, especially when the machine is working, the window should be opened as wide as possible.
- The walls, windows and doors should be made of materials that do not strengthen the echo, and don’t forget to always oil the hinges.
- Should the agency itself has provided a kind of cheap cafeteria specifically for employees. Thus, sales people and other unauthorized visitors are not allowed to enter. Therefore, it is important to have guard posts at the entrance and at the exit.
12 # For the personal needs of its employees, it should be in a place that is not far but also not too close to the employee’s workplace, provided:
- The toilets (toilets) are healthy, clean and sufficient in number
- Dressing rooms, especially for female employees
- Clean and healthy drinking water container
13 # For meeting and recreation purposes, there should be a special room or hall from the size of 17.5 x 25 m to the size of 25 x 40 m.
14 # To make it easier for guests to find the location of the leader’s workspace or units required, it is necessary to carry out:
- Quiet and quite roomy living room
- Ground plan which contains all the units in the agency and is located in the living room.
- List of names of leaders along with their position and work room number and telephone
- Specific numbers for each workspace are clearly defined, and are placed on each door of each room, on the left are given odd numbers, and on the right are given even numbers. Numbers 0 – 99 are for the basement or 100-199 for rooms in the first floor or ground floor, while 200 – 299 for second level rooms and so on.
15 # For the beauty and freshness of the air in the workspace, it should be met with requirements, such as the following:
- There is a ventilation or adequate ventilation and allows air circulation to occur regularly
- Humidity level which ranges from 45% to 60%
- Lighting by using energy saving lamps (not neon)
16 # The freshness of the air and the beauty of the workplace area, the barriers carried out in the presence of:
- The road around the workplace is quite cool and airy
- Gardens with grass and fresh flower gardens
- The car park is quite spacious and not too close to employees’ work rooms
17 # To maintain flexibility for the possibilities for future development and expansion, especially based on financial capacity and expansion of activities, in building construction, the constraints are pursued through several stages, including:
- In stage I, make the building a letter I (free to make how many levels)
- In stage II, if the funds are sufficient, arrange additional units by changing the building in the form of letter I to L
- Furthermore, it was added to a C-shaped building
- Next, the addition can change the shape of the building into an O-shape
- Finally, the shape of the building can be refined again into the shape of letters that resemble the letter B.
18 # To implement all the principles of this office layout, it should be known precisely, regarding the following aspects:
- Functions of existing job criteria
- Work patterns and systems. Remember matters related to work procedures, procedures and work systems
- The number of existing personnel and about possible additions
- Available Space
- Machinery, furniture, equipment, equipment and other facilities that exist and will be there to meet the principles of ergonomics and efficiency.
- Financial ability
- The location (location) of the agency that is connected with the state of the surrounding area.