Ultraism. Poetic movement created at the beginning of the 20th century by Spanish and Hispanic-American poets from the beginning of the century. Characterized by the radical renewal of the spirit and poetic technique as a common sentiment to various avant-garde ideals that sought a poetry based on the image.
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- 1 Description
- 2 Ultraist Poets
- 3 Objectives of ultraism
- 4 Source
It has several aspects in common with creationism , it was an avant-garde literary movement that was defined fundamentally by its opposition to modernism and the Generation of ’98. It was clearly Spanish. It emerged with the declared intention of confronting modernism, it was born in Spain in 1918 and died out. in 1922 with the disappearance of the magazine “Ultra”.
Among those who were part of the ultraist nucleus are Guillermo de Torre , Juan Larrea, Gerardo Diego , Pedro Garfias and the Argentine Jorge Luis Borges , who at that time lived in Madrid. It was launched at the gatherings of the Café Colonial de Madrid, chaired by Rafael Cansinos Assens.
In keeping with Russian and Italian Futurism , Dadaism and French Surrealism , Ultraism, an aesthetic change was proposed, less ambitious than that of Surrealism, which was intended to extend to all the arts and even to everyday life. The ultraists denied the mannerism and opulence of modernism, a movement started by the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío .
Goals of ultraism
- Elimination of rhyme.
- Synthesis of two or more images in one, thus broadening its power of suggestion.
- Shocking, illogical images and metaphors highlighting the world of cinema, sports, and technical advancement.
- Crossing out of the dividing phrases, the links and the useless adjectives.
- Abolition of ornamental work, confessionalism, circumstance, preaching and far-fetched nebulosity.
- Tendency to establish a new typographical arrangement of the words of the poem. pretending in this way to show a fusion of art and poetry.
- Neologisms, technicalities and esdrújulas words.
- Reduction of the lyric to its primary element: the metaphor.
The expression “ornamental chessmen” was a clear reference to Ruben Daria modernism, which the ultraists considered ornate and without substance. Ultraism coincided with the other avant-gardes in eliminating sentimentality.
Ultraism was akin to creationism , of the Chilean poet Vicente Huidobro , who went through the social gatherings of the ultraists. Huidobro wanted a poem to always be a new and different object from the others, to be created “as nature creates a tree”, a position that implied the freedom of the poem in the face of reality, including the intimate reality of the author.