Types of particles in the Universe

All the matter that exists in the Universe is made up of particles. Each type of particle fulfills a different function.

The interaction between the different types of particles makes the Universe as we know it possible.

There are two classes of particles: fermions and bosons . Fermions make up the mass of matter. The bosons are responsible for applying the four fundamental forces to this mass: electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and force of gravity.

Elemental particles

Elementary particles are the smallest parts or portions that matter can be divided into.

The elemental fermions are quarks and leptons:

– Quarks: they join in groups of three to form larger particles, such as protons and neutrons.
– Leptons: they are very light particles, like electrons, muons and neutrinos.

The elemental bosons are photons, gluons, and others:

– Photons: responsible for electromagnetism.
– Gluons: they deal with the strong nuclear force.
– Bosons W and Z: in charge of the weak nuclear force.
– Graviton: in charge of gravity, although it has never been seen yet.

– Higgs boson: responsible for the particles having mass. It explains all the matter that we see, and that is why it is called “the divine particle.”

What are hadrons?

When several elementary particles come together, they form composite particles that we call hadrons .

Compound fermions are baryons. The best known are protons and neutrons. The compound bosons are the mesons. The best known is the pion. CERN’s hadron collider is a very important particle physics experiment.

Scientists from all over the world participate in it. It accelerates the particles (hadrons) to almost the speed of light and bumps them together to see how they behave. Through these experiments, CERN seeks information on undiscovered types of particles, the composition of the Universe, their origin, and how forces act on each other.


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