What are fertilizers and fertilizers and what are they for?
The fertilizer or fertilizer is any substance (whether organic or not) used to improve the quality of the substrate in order to improve the rooting of plants. Today we are going to see the types of fertilizers.
The main function of the fertilizer is to provide nutrients to your plants and crops so that they grow more and better.
Types of Fertilizers
Its composition is based on plant or animal materials , there is also the so-called synthesis, from urea:
- Peat:It is known to be organic materials exposed to high temperatures and humidity that result in decomposing material . These are mixed with the substrate resulting in fertile soil suitable for agricultural growth. There are two types: blond peat , it is not suitable for all types of crops since its pH is very low; and black peat , its capacity to absorb water is lower but it is more alkaline.
- Compost:It is obtained from the controlled decomposition of organic elements , mainly vegetables. An attempt is made to mimic the natural decomposition that occurs in nature. This system is very popular because it is easy to make at home, it is only necessary to separate inorganic waste from organic. This fertilizer, being biodegradable, rearranges the natural structure of the soil, improving it.
- Manure: Itwas the most used fertilizer in agricultural areas until the appearance of agrochemicals, which supplanted them. It consists of the fecal matter of animals . The main characteristic is the high level of nitrogen that it possesses although this varies according to the animal, since not everyone consumes the same food. The best is usually sheep. The largest manure is usually used for biogas production.
- Earthworm humus: This fertilizer is made by the digestive movement of earthworms . As a result, an odorless material is obtained, rich in nutrients and of better quality even than natural compost. It is deposited above the substrate, between the litter and organic material waste. Domestic production is also possible, it is only necessary to buy worms and, like compost, to dispose of organic matter.
- Green Fertilizer: Its main characteristic is that the same plants that are sown serve as fertilizer . Once grown they are cut and put back in the substrate so that they decompose in place and enrich the earth. Vegetables are mainly used, since they are able to deposit the nitrogen they consume on the ground . In addition to enriching the terrain, it protects it from its natural erosion, rain, sun, etc.
- Guano:The fertilizer resulting from the excretions of seabirds is called guano , which, thanks to its fish-based diet, produces feces with a high level of potassium and nitrogen . This is mixed with the substrate to administer said substances.
- Bone meal: They are usually useful for their high phosphorus content , which allows the flowering of plants. However, it may be too alkaline, due to its high lime content, which makes it difficult to absorb other nutrients. At the same time it helps stabilize a soil with a very acidic pH. The payment of hooves and antlers is recommended for its high level of nitrogen.
- Ashes:They are used to correct the low pH of the land. They should be exclusively ashes obtained from organic materials. They have magnesium, potassium and calcium but lack nitrogen.
These types of fertilizers contain mineral substances obtained through chemical plants or the exploitation of mineral deposits . They can be classified in three ways: Composition, status or type of application. The most used is by its composition:
- Simple fertilizers: Its composition is based only on one element. There are three types: nitrogen, phosphated and potassium .
- Composite fertilizers:These contain two or more types of nutrients . Their identification depends on three successive numbers, and they represent what percentage of wealth contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium , in that order. For example 52 kg of 9-23-23: 9 of nitrogen, 23 of phosphorus and 23 of potassium. They are subclassified into: complex fertilizers, the main feature is that it is packaged in granule form and it is achieved that each one has the same proportion of N, PYK, are manufactured industrially; Blending or blending fertilizers (from English: mix), are mixtures of different organic materials, but they are not reacted chemically, in their composition there are several elements.