There are three types of social research methodologies based on their design: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed. Each research design consists of several types. This post will discuss the types of research designs derived from three types of research methodologies. The term design type often refers to a type of research. Therefore, the types and types here will not be distinguished. The main source of this paper is a book by John W. Creswell entitled ” Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mix Method “. Read also Research Design: Examples and Types.
Before continuing, I also need to summarize the methodology in this paper so that the explanation presented is not ambiguous or vague. The methodology here can be understood in three interrelated dimensions, namely (1) the research approach adopted as the research design, (2) the approach used to collect data or data analysis techniques, (3) the data analysis process.
Using a definition that includes these three dimensions, the methodology here is broader in scope than the method. Again, this type of research methodology is understood in terms of the three dimensions above. The explanation of each type of methodology in this post will go directly to the types. If the reader wants to explore what quantitative, qualitative and both research are, visit this link because we will immediately discuss the types of research methodology.
Type of research methodology
∴ Quantitative research
This type of method is used when researchers want to know the results of certain treatments or treatments for a group of people to make recommendations or evaluate a policy. Experimental research uses one group that will receive treatment , and one or more other groups who will not receive treatment . The results of the study are the results of comparisons between the two or more groups. If the results between groups receiving treatment and those not receiving treatment are relatively the same, then the treatment or policy or treatment applied is arguably ineffective. But if the results are significantly different, it means treatmentis effective.
For example, research on installing cigarette alarms to reduce the number of smokers in public spaces. In some public spaces, such as bus stops, cigarette alarms are installed, which when people smoke around them will sound. Some other bus stops do not have cigarette alarms installed. We assume, this experiment wants to show that installing cigarette alarms in public spaces will be more effective at reducing the number of smokers than, for example, posting no smoking posts or implementing anti-smoking government regulations. If the result is that the proportion of people smoking at bus stops with alarms installed is less, then we can say that the treatment of installing cigarette alarms is an effective way to reduce the number of smokers in public spaces.
Also read: Examples of Quantitative Research
The survey method is also called the non-experimental quantitative research method. This type of research is used when the researcher wants to find out the results of the analysis regarding trends, behavior or opinions of the population by conducting studies on a sample of that population. The survey method includes cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in which data collection uses a questionnaire or structured interview. The data collected is processed where the final conclusions are the result of generalizations.
Examples of survey methods are numerous. One of them, for example, a study on the effect of alcohol consumption on crime rates. Several individuals living in a country with a high crime rate were sampled. The alcohol consumption variable is used to see whether there is a significant effect between the level of alcohol consumption and the crime rate in the area studied. If the results are significant, it can be concluded that alcohol consumption affects the crime rate.
Also read: Survey Research Methods
∴ Qualitative research
This type of narrative research is used when the researcher wants to write about the life story of the individual or group being studied. The story told by the participants is recounted or rewritten by the researcher in a narrative chronology. Not infrequently, stories in the form of narratives conveyed by participants are combined with the perspective of the researcher so that narrative research is the result of collaboration between the author and the participants.
This type of research is used by researchers who want to investigate a phenomenon from the perspective of an individual or several individuals who experience it. This research design comes from the study of philosophy and psychology, and is often used in sociological studies. Descriptions of phenomena based on the experiences of several participants were collected and analyzed. Usually, phenmenological research data are obtained through in-depth interviews.
Also read: Phenomenology: Definition & Research Process
This type of research is mostly carried out in sociological research. Grounded means that the researcher makes a description, theory about the process, action, or interaction that originates purely from the participants. The perspective or theory that is in the head of the researcher is released first before going to the field. This research process uses several stages of data collection and strategies in categorizing the information or data obtained.
This type of ethnographic research is used when researchers want to explore patterns of behavior, language, and social actions of a particular group, group or community in a “natural” setting within a certain time period. Data collection techniques commonly used include; participatory observation and in-depth interviews.
This type of case study research is applied to investigate and analyze a case in depth. The cases under study are usually events, activities, programs, or processes that involve individuals or groups. A case always occurs in a specific context, meaning at a certain time in a certain place. The process of collecting case study data was also carried out over a specific time period.
Also read: Case Studies
∴ Combined or mix method
A parallel-convergent combined method design is a research design that is used by combining (convergence) between qualitative and quantitative data to produce a comprehensive analysis. With this research design, the researcher collects two types of data at relatively the same time, then integrates the two data. The results of the research can be in the form of confirmation or contradiction between the two data collected.
An explanative mixed methods design is that quantitative data is first collected and analyzed, then supplemented with qualitative data. This type is called explanatory because qualitative data provides a further explanation of the quantitative data collected early on. This type of study is quite popular with quantitative methods experts who treat qualitative data as complementary.
In contrast to the explanatory type, the mixed methods exploratory type applies qualitative analysis first, then completes the findings with a quantitative analysis. The qualitative data collection phase is usually used as an instrument to take a representative sample of the study undertaken, or as an instrument for compiling specific and relevant variables.
A transformative combined method design is used when the researcher uses a theoretical lens that is oriented towards idealized concepts of social justice and power in analyzing the qualitative and quantitative data collected. This type is called transformative because it involves the researcher’s mission to create the social transformation of the society under study, namely the creation of social justice.