The Study Of Racism In Sociology.The Racism is the belief that one race, ethnicity or certain physical characteristics are superior to others.Racism can manifest itself both on an individual and institutional level, through policies such as slavery, apartheid, the holocaust, colonialism, imperialism, among others.
Although racism is associated with prejudice against blacks, it can manifest itself against any race or ethnicity, whether Asian, indigenous, etc.
It is worth remembering that the practice of racism in Brazil is considered an unspeakable crime, with a penalty of up to 3 years in prison.
Types of Racism
Now let’s look at the main types of racism:
1. Individual Racism
Individual racism is expressed in individual discriminatory attitudes, through stereotypes, insults and rejection of a person who does not have the same ethnic characteristics as yours.
In this way, we have expressions such as “it is black, but it is clean ” or ” good Indian is dead Indian ” that reveal the profound contempt for an entire group.
See also: Racism in Brazil
2. Institutional Racism
Institutional racism is that exercised by institutions, such as the State, the Church, private and public companies, in which certain ethnic groups, such as blacks or Indians, are marginalized and rejected, either directly or indirectly.
One of the greatest examples was apartheid in South Africa, when blacks were prohibited from going to the same places as whites. Likewise, in the United States, there were laws of this type, which prevented blacks from studying in the same schools as whites, for example.
See also: Apartheid
3. Cultural Racism
It results in the belief that there is superiority among existing cultures, in the broad sense that “culture” encompasses, religion, customs, languages, among others.
Cultural racism has been used as a justification for colonizing and dominating territories since antiquity. In modern times, this type of racism can include elements of institutional and individual racism.
See also: Colonialism
4. Communitarian Racism ( Differentialist )
The concept of communitarianism gained strength in the 1980s, as opposed to individualism. This philosophy holds that the community is more important than the individual itself.
In this way, communitarian racism is linked to contemporary thinking and nationalism. He becomes racist to the extent that he always privileges his community over another.
As a consequence, communitarian racism targets a group like an indigenous village, a quilombola community, and not just specific individuals.
See also: Social Prejudice
5. Ecological (Environmental) Racism
Ecological racism is detected when peripheral populations do not receive the same treatment as a central area.
An example of this is the expropriations carried out in an arbitrary way to make way for dams or sporting events facilities. Or when a developed country company sells a product to a developing country that does not comply with the rules of its country of origin.
Also the destruction of the environment, affecting groups and communities based on the unequal application of the legislation is considered as environmental racism.
See also: Prejudice
One of the racist attitudes is social isolation
Racist movements around the world
People called racists are based on the ideology of racial superiority. These ideas gained strength in the 19th century through Positivism and, later, in the 20th century, were taken advantage of by Fascism .
Even with all the studies indicating that an individual’s race has nothing to do with intelligence or character, certain people continue to believe this. The worst is when these people get together and start taking violent actions against the groups they classify as “inferior”.
Some racist movements around the world today are the neo-Nazis and skinheads. These groups harass, beat and kill people considered to be different, whether by race, color, culture or even sexual, religious preferences, etc.
See also: Neonazism: The influence of Nazism today
Racism against whites or reverse racism
It is important to clarify that racism takes place within a specific historical context. Thus, not every insult – although it is always a condemnable attitude – will be considered racist.
The fact that a white person is called a “heart of palm” or “sour milk” is not a racist. The reason is that, in the modern and contemporary world, whites were not subjugated, nor treated as slaves.
Likewise, they are not treated differently in a systematic way in environments such as advertising, colleges, and workplaces in general.
See also: Black Movement
How to combat racism?
Racism must be combated daily, first in an individual attitude and then in a social way.
The most important thing is to recognize that we live in a racist society and this is very easy to verify by answering these questions.
- Brazil has almost 50% of the population that declares itself black: in the National Congress do we have 50% of black parliamentarians?
- Are there 50% of black doctors in hospitals?
Thus, a self-assessment starting with our vocabulary would be interesting. We should remove expressions from our language such as “denigrate”, “black with white soul”, “moreninha do bombril”, and many others.
Likewise, getting to know other cultures, customs, people and religions. How many black or indigenous personalities do you admire? When we have contact with different knowledge that we are used to, we open our heads and realize that human beings are very similar.
Finally, remember that the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is celebrated on March 21st.