Stage of Prostate Cancer from Beginning to End

The stage of prostate cancer is the level that tells you how severe the cancer is. Generally, doctors use the TNM staging system to determine the stage of cancer after a person is diagnosed with prostate cancer. Find out how to stage prostate cancer from mild diagnosis to end-stage prostate cancer.

How to determine the stage of prostate cancer

The team of doctors used the TNM system to determine the stage of a patient’s prostate cancer. TNM is T ( Tumor ), N ( Nodes ), and M ( Metastasis ). This system was developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) which was updated in 2018.

The stage of the cancer will provide information about the location of the cancer and the severity of the cancer. The stage in cancer also illustrates how quickly cancer cells might develop and the possibility of cancer cells spreading to other parts of the body.

There are 3 main components to determine the stage of prostate cancer, namely:

1. PSA level

PSA ( prostate-specific antigen ) is a protein produced by the prostate gland. Most of the PSA is in the semen while a small portion flows in the blood. While a PSA blood test is needed to identify prostate cancer in men both with and without symptoms.

After a diagnosis of prostate cancer, the doctor will identify the level of PSA in the patient for screening purposes. PSA level is a barometer to determine the nature of cancer cells and further treatment plans. The doctor will perform the latest PSA test for each time the patient checks in the initial phase and determines the stage of the cancer.

2. Gleason (Score) Prostate Cancer Patient

The stage of prostate cancer is also identified as the Gleason score . The Gleason score is an indicator to see the pattern of cancer cells in tissue samples. This gleason system is determined in X-10 score with the most common (primary) and second (secondary) traits.

Here are the levels of Gleaso scores

  • Gleason X: Gleason score cannot be determined.
  • Gleason 6 or Lower: Cancer cells look like healthy cells.
  • Gleason 8, 9, or 10: Cells are different from healthy cells.

Then, the Gleason score levels are grouped in a simpler Grade Group , namely:

  • Grade Group 1: Gleason 6
  • Grade Group 2: Gleason 3 + 4 = 7
  • Grade Group 3: Gleason 4 + 3 = 7
  • Grade Group 4: Gleason 8
  • Grade 5: Gleason 9 or 10

This Gleason Group grade is then used to determine the stage of a patient’s prostate cancer.

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3. Prostate Cancer Stage with TNM System

Doctors use the TNM system to determine the nature of tumor growth and spread in patients. The following is an explanation of what TNM staging is :

·         T ( Tumor )

The level of the primary tumor is determined by describing its size and location. If the tumor cannot be assessed, the stage is called TX. If no tumor is found, the stage is T0. As size and spread increase, so do stages T1, T2, T3, or T4. In addition to the basic categories, doctors may use subcategories such as T1a or T1b to add information.

·         N ( Nodes )

This determines whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near your bladder. If the lymph node cannot be assessed, the stage is called NX. If no lymph nodes are affected, the stage is N0. If there is cancer in the gland, the stage is N1.

·         M ( Metastasis )

Cancer has spread to bones or other organs (M1) or not (M0). The doctor can also use subsets such as M1a for lymph nodes or M1b for bone, or M1C for other areas.

The results of the T, N and M score indicators will be combined with other stages. There are 5 stages from stage 0 and stages I to IV (1 to 4). This stage will give an overview of the development of cancer cells so that doctors will be easier to make treatment and treatment plans.

Also Read:  Prostate Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Prostate Cancer Staging Grouping

Doctors combine T, N, and M results with Gleason ( grade ) scores and PSA levels in a process called the grouping stage. The whole stage is expressed in Roman numerals from I (the lightest stage) to IV (the heaviest stage). Doctors use staging to help determine the best treatment for you.

Stage I

Stage I prostate cancer usually grows slowly. The patient may not be able to feel the tumor because it only affects half of one side of the prostate or even less. The cells also look healthy like other cells.

  • This cancer develops in the prostate, but has not spread outside the prostate area.
  • In most cases, the tumor cannot be felt during digital rectal examination or Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) or seen in imaging tests.
  • Gleason score of 6 or less and a PSA level of less than 10.
  • This tumor is one-half or less on one side of the prostate.

Stage II

Stage II prostate cancer means:

  • The tumor is found in the prostate, does not spread to other tissues.
  • Moderate or low PSA level.
  • Cancer is small but still has a risk of spreading and developing.

Stage II prostate cancer is separated again in several stages which are categorized with A, B, and C. The following explanation:

Stage IIA

  • This cancer develops in the prostate, but has not spread outside the prostate.
  • The doctor can or cannot feel the tumor during DRE or see it on an imaging test.
  • Tumors can touch more than half of one prostate lobe but do not involve both lobes.
  • Gleason score of 7 or less and a PSA level of less than 20.

Stage IIB

  • This cancer develops in the prostate, but has not spread outside the prostate area.
  • The doctor can or cannot feel the tumor during DRE or see it on an imaging test.
  • Tumors can be in one or both prostate lobes.
  • Tumors can have Gleason and PSA scores at any level.

Stadium IIC

  • The tumor is in the prostate but may be quite large during DRE or seen on imaging tests.
  • PSA level is moderate.
  • Cancer cells look different from healthy cells and may develop medium or bad.

Also Read:  Prostatectomy Surgery: Objectives, Procedures, Costs, etc.

Stage III

Stage III prostate cancer means:

  • The cancer has spread outside the prostate but hasn’t made it to the lymph nodes or anywhere else on your body.
  • Tumors can have Gleason and PSA scores at any level (tend to be high).

At this stage, it is indicated towards end-stage prostate cancer. Cancer cells tend to spread and grow rapidly. Stage III prostate cancer is divided into several more stages, namely:

Stage IIIA

  • Cancer cells have spread to the outer layer of the prostate to the nearest tissue.
  • Cancer cells have a risk of spreading also the seminal vesicles, which are the glands in the lower back of the bladder.
  • High PSA level

Stage IIIB

A condition in which cancer cells spread outside the prostate gland tissue and may spread to the bladder or rectal tissue. This condition is at risk of developing to worsen to end-stage prostate cancer.

Stage IIIC

The condition in which cancer cells in all parts of the tumor develop worsen. These cells have a structure and properties that are far different from healthy cells.

Also Read:  13 Ways to Prevent Prostate Cancer (Easy & # 038; Natural)

Stage IV

End-stage prostate cancer means:

  • The cancer has spread outside the prostate to other tissues and usually lymph nodes, bones, liver, or lungs.
  • Tumors can have Gleason and PSA scores at any level.

This is a late stage prostate cancer where the cancer has spread beyond the prostate. The spread and growth of cancer is fast. Stage-stage prostate cancer is divided into several more stages, namely:

Stage IVA

  • The cancer has spread to regional lymph nodes.
  • The tumor may or may not grow into tissue near the prostate.
  • The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Gleason Group and PSA grades can be at any level.

Stage IVB

  • The cancer has spread to lymph nodes that are far from the prostate, other tissue from the body, or to the bones.
  • Cancer may not spread to the nearest lymph node or other lymph nodes.
  • Gleason Group and PSA grades can be at any level.

That’s the way to determine the stage of prostate cancer. Doctors use diagnostic test examinations to identify the stage of the cancer. Furthermore, the doctor will provide care and treatment according to the patient’s cancer stage.

 

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