Let’s take a closer look at the Onda Curta bands used by broadcast radio stations, whether they are official, private, religious, pirate or clandestine.
We can start with the so-called “tropical bands” (120m, 90m and 60m), so called, because they are used by radio stations from countries located in the tropics:
- 120 m band (2300 to 2495 kHz):
In Portuguese, six Brazilian stations with small transmitters, between 2380 and 2490 kHz, are broadcast on this band (Rádio Educadora, R. Transamazónica, R. São Carlos, R. Alvorada, R. Cacique and R. Oito de Setembro). The most powerful, with 5 Kw, is Transamazónica, in Senador Guiomard, in the territory of Acre.
In Latin America, two broadcasters from Venezuela and two from Mexico appear in this band.
It is interesting to note that, although it is a tropical band, it broadcasts here an American station, of the State of Tennessee, with 100 Kw and religious programs in English language destined for Central Africa.
Australian stations also appear, offering programs in local (Aboriginal) and English. These emissions originate in Alice Springs, in the Northern Territory and have the lowest frequency, in Short Wave, registered worldwide (2310 kHz).
Other countries that have radio stations in this band are Belarus, Indonesia, North Korea, Israel, China.
Despite this, we can say that, at present, there are not many radio stations broadcasting in the 120 meter band, Onda Curta.
It is interesting to note that, outside this band, there is a 100 Kw transmitter from the Malagasy Republic on the frequency of 2643 kHz. In fact, it is usual to find stations broadcasting outside the internationally considered bands. China is an example, but R. Vaticano has also recorded two frequencies outside the bands, as we will see.
- 90 m band (3200 to 3400 kHz):
It is in this band that Radio Mozambique broadcasts, in the morning and at night, from Maputo, Beira and Nampula. In Portuguese there are also several Brazilian broadcasters, Angola and South Africa. Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala, etc., are broadcasters from Latin America that broadcast in Spanish in this band. R. Rebelde, from Havana, Cuba, is also here 24 hours a day. African countries such as Swaziland, South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Malawi and others appear in this band in English. In French, you can hear broadcasters from Madagascar, Togo, Niger, Congo, Zaire, etc.
The Rádio Moçambique frequency (3210 kHz) is also used by an American broadcaster in Tennessee. Of course, there is no chance of interference, because the distance is very large and this band is not intended to have great reach. Between eight and nine at night, local time, Rádio Moçambique (Maputo), in 3210, is interfered by South Africa, which is at this hour on the neighboring frequency of 3215 kHz. This situation must be verified in Inhambane, for example, where the alternative could be the 60 meters band or else the 407 meters, Medium Wave (better in the coldest months) can be tried.
- 60 m band (4750 to 5060 kHz):
In this band they broadcast radio stations from the five continents. Mozambique has here the emitters of Maputo, Pemba and Nampula.
Angola is present in force with the Provincial Issuers of Cuando Cubango, Huíla, Uíge, Lunda Sul, Zaire, Bié, Malange, Cabinda, Namibe, Benguela and Huambo, in addition to the National Radio of Angola.
From São Tomé is the Voice of America relay, with programs in Hausa, French and English.
Among many other countries, radio stations from Swaziland (Trans World Radio), Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana and Lesotho can be found.
Among the various Brazilian stations that broadcast in the 60m band, it is possible to listen to Rádio Cultura Ondas Tropicais, from Manaus, in the Amazon, which uses a powerful 250 Kw transmitter.
At the frequency of 5000 kHz (or 5 MHz), 60 meters, there are different broadcasters, which emit hourly signals, from Venezuela, Equatorial Guinea and Russia.
In Olifantsfontein, South Africa, there was one of these stations on this frequency, 24 hours a day, which belonged to the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The seconds could be heard, like a clock running, with an hourly signal every minute.
Although on other frequencies, there was in Maputo the “Rádio Naval”, which transmitted this hourly information for a few minutes a day. Anyone who sent a listening report to Caixa Postal 2267, Maputo, received a confirmation letter.
So far we have dealt with tropical bands, used almost always for domestic services, that is, for the interior of each country. As, in tropical countries, the regions to be covered are large and sparsely populated, the Short Wave in these lower frequencies is the solution, in the early hours with sunshine and from the end of the day.
We now move on to the so-called “international bands”, which, although used also for domestic services in some countries in the tropics, are also used for external services. Early in the morning and at night, the bands corresponding to lower frequencies are used; during the day it is the opposite.
- 75m band (3900 to 4000 kHz):
This band is “frequented” by five or six stations in Europe, appear several Asian countries and even New Zealand and Peru. From Africa is Angola, with the Provincial Emitter of Huíla; and Cameroon.
Slightly outside this band, at 4005 kHz, it broadcasts Vatican Radio in several languages, early in the morning and at night. Uses a 10 Kw emitter for Central Europe.
It was once a very popular band, where you could, in the past, tune in to Switzerland, South Africa and even Mozambique (Rádio Pax da Beira).
- 49m band (5900 to 6250 kHz):
This is a very interesting band, which brings great challenges to anyone who is serious about listening to Onda Curta, where they usually broadcast broadcasters from over a hundred countries, from “A” in Afghanistan, Albania and Argentina to “Z” in Zambia and Zimbabwe … More than one hundred languages and dialects can be heard in this band, including Galician and Basque, spoken in the autonomous regions of Spain; Esperanto, a simple and regular language, created by a Polish for the most diverse people to understand each other; and even Latin, a dead language spoken by the ancient Romans; English, French, Chinese are very present in this band.
The Portuguese language is also featured here on Radio Mozambique (Maputo and Beira), Angola (Provincial Broadcaster in Benguela), Voice of America, RAI in Italy, BBC in London, Radio Beijing, Trans World Radio in Swaziland, Africa Channel on Africa do Sul, the American WYFR and about 25 Brazilian stations.
In the same way, this phenomenon is in this band, which puts the stations closer to their listeners: the retransmitters. In São Tomé there are “Voice of America” relays, which broadcast programs in English for West Africa; in South Africa, which, in addition to the Africa Channel, broadcasts programs from the London BBC, the “Adventist World Radio” and the “Lighthouse of the World”, both of which are religious; and in Sines, Portugal, where “Voice of Germany” emitters are located. Usually the sound arrives via satellite and is transmitted by Short Wave transmitters, located much closer to the destination area than the studios where the program originated.
In the 49 meters band, with so many transmitters, it is expected that they have the most varied powers: the weakest (with only one hundredth of a kilo uóte) are from a commercial broadcaster in Canada and a clandestine radio in Colombia. ..
Services are also the most differentiated: national, provincial or regional programs; external, international or overseas; educational, university or humanitarian; commercial, minority or economic information. Anyway, an immense variety of recipients!
It is these and other characteristics that make Onda Curta such a special means of communication.
On frequencies outside the 49 meter band, several stations appear, some of them broadcast in Portuguese: this is the case of Rádio Nacional de Angola, at 5500 kHz; the Vatican Radio, at 5883 kHz, for Europe; and Voice of America, at 5890 kHz, to Africa, in the morning.
At the frequency indicated above, in the morning and also at night, Vatican Radio broadcasts, in addition to Portuguese, in Arabic and in 12 languages to Europe.
Below, at 5875 kHz, the BBC broadcasts in ten languages, from “A” by Azeri to “U” by Ukrainian, mainly for Europe.
At higher frequencies than those of the 49 meter band, that is, already on the way to the 41 meter band, there are mainly clandestine resistance and popular liberation stations. However, “external services” also appear, as is the case with the official radio stations in Taiwan, Israel and, mainly, North Korea, which presents programs here in seven different languages.
- 41m band (7100 to 7350 kHz):
Although the limits of this band are indicated in parentheses, frequencies up to 7580 kHz are used in a very intense way, so it can be said that the broadcasters took charge of extending the band … In such a wide range of frequencies, stations appear from the four corners of the world, broadcasting in all languages. In Portuguese, in addition to Angola and Mozambique, the London BBC, the Voice of America, Radio China International, Voice of Russia, Vatican, Trans World Radio and WSHB of the United States are heard.
Mozambique is present with the National Emission in Portuguese and with the Inter Provincial Emission in Portuguese and Tsonga.
Angola has Huíla, Huambo, Lobito, Cuanza Sul, Benguela and Luanda here.
São Tomé appears with the Voice of America retransmitters in Portuguese, Hausa and English for West and Central Africa.
South Africa has relays from BBC London, TWR (Trans World Radio), FEBA Sheychelles and Radio France. Radio Sonder Grense in Afrikaans is also broadcast in this band.
From Swaziland broadcasts TWR (Trans World Radio) in Portuguese, Macua and English. Listen to Radio Tanzania’s “General Service” in Swahili.
During the day you can also hear Zimbabwe in English and Shona.
In this 41-meter band, “world services” are heard from Radio France and Voice of Russia; “Regional stations” from Benin and Indonesia. The Voice of Russia also has a broadcast here specially addressed to Russian sailors. Voz da América presents news in “Special English”, that is, English spoken slowly so that listeners less accustomed to that language can understand the content of the program.
The “Voice of the Sahel” is broadcast in French by Radio Niger; and Eritrea broadcasts “A Voz das Ampas Massas”, in English. Everything in this 41 meter band.
It can be said that the 41 meter band starts where the 40 meter band of amateur radio ends and officially ends at 7350 kHz. However, it advances on the way to the 31 meter band, although stations start to thin out from 7580 or 7600 kHz. It is, therefore, a great band, where it is possible to spend hours looking for stations from all over the world. During the day, you can listen to stations more or less nearby. But, at night, it provides listening to distant countries (in Europe, in winter, at night, for example, India and South Africa are heard!). The cold helps the spread …
An example of a radio station to be broadcast outside of broadcast radio bands is the Voice of Iran. It uses the frequency of 9022 kHz, that is, approximately the wavelength of 33 meters. It uses a 350 Kw transmitter to transmit programs in English, Italian, Turkish, German, French, Spanish and Arabic, from six in the afternoon until two in the morning. The “modulation” is not perfect (the sound is somewhat distorted), but the signal strength is good (the emitter is powerful and the emission antennas are well directed).
On frequencies already close to the beginning of the 31 meter band, Radio Pyongyang, from North Korea, appears at various times and in several Asian and European languages.
Other stations that appear here are Radio Taipei, Radio International of China and Voice of Greece. Less present are broadcasters from Ukraine and Pakistan.
- 31m band (9400 to 9990 kHz):
The lowest frequency of this band, 9400 kHz, has been occupied by Radio Bulgaria, which broadcasts to the United States and Europe, early in the morning and after sunset, Bulgarian, English, French and German, with a powerful 500 Kw emitter.
At the highest frequency, 9990 kHz, it broadcasts Radio Cairo, for about four hours at night, in German, French and English, to Europe with a 250 Kw transmitter.
Between these two, stations from around the world appear. Although some stations can be heard throughout the day, the best time to listen to this international band is at night. Right from the end of the afternoon, listening conditions begin to open; as the morning progresses, the spread begins to close.
Over a hundred countries appear in this band, presenting their programs in more than 130 languages.
Just a paragraph to say that, throughout the Short Wave, radio programs are broadcast in almost 300 languages and dialects! If there were no other reasons, this reality would, in itself, be an argument to consider radio as the most important means of disseminating news, ideas and everything that is implicit in the programs of the stations …
Rádio Moçambique is here with the National Antenna of Maputo (9620 kHz) and Beira (9635 kHz) and with the Interprovincial Emission of Maputo and Gaza (EIMG) at 9525 kHz throughout the day and part of the night.
Radio Nacional de Angola broadcasts from 05.00 in the morning until midnight, alongside the EIMG, at 9535 kHz, with 100 Kw of power.
From São Tomé transmits the Voice of America, in four or five different frequencies, to West Africa.
From South Africa you can hear in this band of 31 meters the Canal África itself (in English, Portuguese, French and Swahili), as well as retransmissions of programs from the BBC of London, Radio Transmundial and Adventist Radio, among others. Once a month, on Sunday morning, the program of the League of Amateur Radio in South Africa is also broadcast.
Trans World Radio broadcasts from Swaziland programs in Swahili, English, French, Lingala and other languages.
Zambia has in this band a radio station, which broadcasts during the day, in English – “The Christian Voice”.
In addition to the services that we have already glimpsed when describing this 31 meter band, the most diverse types of broadcast appear here; “Conversation between Cubans” and “Cuban military forum” are exile programs; from Iraq broadcasts Radio “Mother of All Battles”, a phrase that became known during the Gulf War; in addition to the usual services, there is also a program for Russians at sea, radios for liberation movements, for university students, politically inspired clandestines, etc.
Right after Radio Cairo, which occupies the highest frequency of this band of 31 meters, a Russian station appears, which transmits hourly signals.
The frequencies of aeronautical transmissions follow, and on the way to the 25 meter band, radio stations appear widely spaced from each other: China, India, North Korea and Iceland.
Iceland is an interesting case of a station that broadcasts outside the usual bands. In this case, the frequencies are 9275 kHz (32.35 meters) and 11402 kHz (26.3 meters); sometimes it uses two others, which are almost at the end of the 22 and 19 meters bands.
Shortly before the start of the 25 meter band, Russia, Taiwan, Australia, Pakistan, India, some American religious stations, etc. are heard.
- 25m band (11600 to 12100 kHz):
The 25 meter band starts with Radio China International and ends with BBC London. In this band, many international broadcasters are heard at any time of the day.
You can also listen to the National Antenna of Radio Mozambique, at 11820 kHz, with 100 or 120 Kw of power, approximately from seven in the morning to seven in the afternoon. It is currently the highest frequency on Mozambican radio, as the former 19 meter transmitter does not appear to be on the air. This transmitter was heard on the frequency of 15285 kHz and had a power of 120 Kw.
I am tempted to speak here about the brands of some broadcasters used by Rádio Moçambique:
– “Brown, Bovery and Company”, from Switzerland, which is now called “Thomcast”;
– “Continental”, from Texas, USA;
– “Gates”, also American, which changed its name to “Harris”;
– “Philips”, manufactured in the Netherlands;
– “RCA”, Radio Corporation of America, which is now “General Electric”;
– “Standard” from Australia, which has since changed its name to “Alcatel”;
– “RIZ”, Radio Industry Zagreb, from Croatia, 1994, with 20 Kw, which seems to be the most recent emitter of Rádio Moçambique.
But returning to the 25 meter band, more than a hundred languages are spoken here and broadcast almost a hundred countries, just like in the most used international bands.
In Portuguese, in addition to Mozambique, Angola and Brazil, external services are heard from France, China, BBC London, Argentina (for Brazil), Italy, Voice of America, Voice of Germany, Romania, Russia, Syria and the Vatican .
There is a service in the “Maconde” language of FEBA, the Missionary Broadcasting Association, to be transmitted from the Seychelles. There is another one in Zulu, from Radio Cairo.
Twice a week, the inhabitants of the Falklands Islands, or Malvinas, in the South Atlantic, are entitled to a BBC London program, which is specially dedicated to them in this band, in English (Falklands Calling).
Saudi Arabia makes its emissions here entirely filled with the Holy Koran.
The “Democratic Voice of Borneo” also conveys its views here.
Three “Voices” are presented in this 25-meter band: the “Voice of Africa” (Libya), the “Voice of the Arabs” (Egypt) and the “Voice of Charity (Vatican).
The National Radio of Spain appears in this band with programs in national autonomous languages (Basque, Catalan and Galician).
Finally, a wealth of stations from around the world for those who want to systematically explore this international band.
Between the bands of 25 and 21 meters, in addition to some broadcasting stations, many marine communications can be heard during the day, between boats, from boats to land and from land to boats. The higher frequencies, on the way to the 21-meter band, are used for aircraft communications.
- 21m band (13500 to 13870 kHz):
There is an organization, which decides on the broadcasting bands, and which is called, in Portuguese, more or less this: World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of High Frequency Broadcasting Bands. Of course, there is an abbreviation, from the original name in English and that abbreviation is simply “WARC”.
This comes with regard to this band of 21 meters, which is relatively recent. In 1979 WARC agreed to expand some existing bands and to create the new 21 meter band. At that time the band was fixed between the frequencies of 13600 and 13800 kHz.
Before this band was created, Radio Beijing was already broadcasting at 13700 kHz, with 20 Kw of power. In 1983, Radio Beijing was no longer in the band, but Pakistan appeared at 13605 kHz (with 250 Kw of power) and Israel at 13720 kHz (with 300 kW). Iraq appeared in 1984 with 500 Kw at 13700 kHz.
The 21 meter band started to have more expression in 1985, when the former Soviet Union broadcast in no less than 15 different frequencies. Pakistan and Israel withdrew from the band, Iraq remained and Bangladesh (at 13670 kHz with 250 Kw), Iran (13745 kHz) and the Netherlands (13770 kHz) appeared, with 500 Kw each.
This band offers good listening conditions during the day and early evening. With the advance of night and dawn, lower frequencies are sought.
The first station you hear – at 13570 kHz – is usually the WIBN “Leão Vermelho”, from the United States.
Radio stations from around 50 countries are found in this band, which broadcast in just over 50 languages, which means less demand compared to other broadcasting bands. The most diverse powers are found, from 1 Kw, from a station in the Philippines, to 600 Kw from Radio China. The usual services of Onda Curta appear: external, foreign, international, overseas, etc., of a religious nature (Saudi Arabia with the Holy Koran) and a radio from the University of Dallas, Texas, USA; Voz da América is also in this band – through its retransmitters in São Tomé and Botswana – with the usual VOA Africa services, VOA Notícias Agora, VOA Special English (slowly, for whom English works as a 2nd language).
Madagascar is represented in this 21 meter band by Radio Nederland’s relay, which it shares with Radio Canada, Belgium and Radio “Voice of Hope”.
In Portuguese they broadcast Radio Portugal, Voice of America, Voice of Germany, BBC, Vatican and Radio Damascus of Syria (for Brazil, eventually heard in Africa).
The last station to be heard in this 21 meter band is Iceland – at 13865 kHz – with a 10 Kw transmitter for Europe in the “upper side band”, that is, only heard by those using a “communications receiver”.
Among radio amateurs or in some programs intended for radio listening, the Single Side Band (BLU) is used, which is divided into Upper Side Band (BLS) and Lower Side Band (BLI).
For those who see and understand what is indicated in one of these “communications receivers”, I must clarify that, in English, it says, respectively: SSB (Single Side Band), USB (Upper Side Band) and LSB (Lower Side Band) .
The advantage of using the “unique side bands” is that it is easier to propagate the sounds emitted. A normal radio only receives broadcasting stations, which broadcast on both bands.
We will take a break here to talk about the types of receivers that are available to Short Wave listeners:
– Short Wave Radios: cover part of the short wave bands, such as from 19 to 90 meters, as was the case with “Xirico”, a great device built in the 70s / 80s by FAE (Fábrica de Aparelhos Electrónicos), from Maputo, Mozambique. These radios tend to have Medium Wave – it was also the case of “Xirico” – but they do not receive communications in Single Side Band (SSB).
– General Coverage Radios: which has the entire Short Wave, from 11 to 120 meters, in addition to the Medium Wave, but which also do not tune SSB communications. In this group are the most complete “home” radios, with valves or transistors.
– Communications receivers: those that have all Short Wave, Medium Wave and Long Wave. They usually start at the frequency of 150 kHz (beginning of the Long Wave) and end at 30 thousand kHz, a wavelength of 10 meters. In addition to broadcasting stations, they also receive SSB communications (radio amateurs, Morse code, etc.)
The communications receivers of the “sixties” did not have Long Wave: they covered from 540 kHz (555 meters, Medium Wave) up to the aforementioned 10 meters.
These were some of the commands:
– An RF gain (radio frequency) to increase the sensitivity, when the station was very weak;
– A “mute line” to remove the sound, when, for example, the receiver was used in conjunction with a transmitter;
– S Meter: to measure the signal strength of the station being received;
– BFO: to better tune SSB emissions;
– An antenna adjustment, which was rotated to obtain greater performance from the antenna to which the receiver was connected;
– A dial adjustment, to adjust the tuned frequency;
– Bandspread: used to unfold the frequencies of the main tuner, in order to better tune what you wanted to hear;
– A Calibrator to determine frequencies (the receivers of this time were of analog tuning);
– A stroke to reduce propagation failures;
– Selectivity control, to avoid interference;
And many more buttons, which are dispensed with today, because modern communications receivers have digital frequency display and various automatic functions, which make them very effective.
The old communications receivers needed some time to warm up; only after being hot did they become more stable, without the frequency varying so much; therefore, they had the loudspeaker aside, to prevent their vibration from altering the reception stability and that it was necessary to adjust the tuning during the entire listening.
- 19m band (15100 to 15800 kHz):
The National Broadcast of Rádio Moçambique used to appear in this band, on the frequency of 15295 kHz, with a power of 120 Kw, throughout the day from six in the morning to seven in the afternoon, roughly. However, for several years no one has been able to hear Maputo in this band.
Some Brazilian stations are heard in the 19 meters. The one that was heard best – Rádio Nacional do Brasil – stopped broadcasting its programs in Portuguese, English and German to Europe at 15265 kHz. At night, Radio Record and Rádio Globo from São Paulo are sometimes heard outside Brazil. Radio Inconfidência in Belo Horizonte is difficult to listen to outside of Brazil. The same can be said of Rádio Timbira in São Luís do Maranhão, Rádio Gazeta in São Paulo and Rádio Clube de Ribeirão Preto.
For many years, the London BBC broadcast on this band, at 15070 kHz. In the “nineties” it was already asked by a public service to withdraw from that frequency, because it caused interference.
However, nowadays, Taiwan uses the neighboring frequency of 15060 kHz and India (All India Radio) is in 15075.
The BBC, however, selected for its “World Service” in English, in this band, almost thirty different frequencies, between 15105 and 15575 kHz.
An interesting station also appears outside the 19 meters band, at 15050 kHz: it is Radio for Peace International, which broadcasts from the capital of Costa Rica (San José), in Central America. It directs its antennas towards North America, but it can also be heard in Europe in English, Russian, French, German and Spanish.
The 19 meter band is typically an international band, with countries from around the world present here in all languages.
Radio New Zealand broadcasts on this band to the Pacific, but is easily heard, for example, in Europe.
In addition to the aforementioned Brazilian broadcasters, Portuguese broadcasters such as the Africa Channel in Johannesburg are broadcasting in Portuguese; the Voice of America, WSHB and the United States’ WYFR; BBC London, Portugal, France, Italy, Romania and the Vatican; Egypt (Radio Cairo), China and Japan for Brazil; and also the radio station HCJB (The Voice of the Andes) of the Republic of Ecuador.
At the end of the band there are stations such as the “liberation program” of the Voice of Tibet and Ethiopians for Democracy in Oromo dialect; for technical reasons Radio Tele Liberdade is interested, which broadcasts on the Upper Side Band (BLU / USB) of Gbadolite, Democratic Republic of Congo.
- 16m band (17480 to 17900 kHz):
We now come to the international band of 16 meters, one of the most used for long distance emissions, mainly during the day.
Before joining this band, we found tracks that are used, during the day, for ship and airplane transmissions. Everything, of course, in SSB (single side band).
At the beginning of the 16 meter band, Radio Praga and All India Radio appear.
In a band intended for long-distance broadcasts, it would be expected that high-power transmitters would be found. This is true, since 50 Kw, 100, many 250 and 500 Kw emitters appear. The most powerful seems to be the Voice of Russia, which declares a thousand Kw!
However, what makes listening to Short Waves interesting is the appearance, among the multitude of powerful stations, of some that will hardly be heard outside the area to which they are intended.
Here in the 16 meters band, two Brazilian stations appear in these conditions: Rádio Cultura de São Paulo and Rádio MEC, with studios in Praça da República, in Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil transmitted in Portuguese to Africa at 17750 kHz. In this band, there are also some Portuguese language broadcasts, namely from Canal África, Voz da América, Vatican, France, Germany and Portugal.
Together with the 13-meter band, equipped with a good receiver and a well-made outdoor antenna (there are no good receivers without good antennas …), the listener in South Africa will have in all 16 meters every chance of listening to the World daytime.
In Botswana, The Voice of America (VOA) has relays; the same can be said of Radio Nederland (Dutch) in Madagascar. This brings the Northern and Southern Hemispheres closer together, making listening as easy as possible.
Among the many interesting stations operating in the 16 meter band, we refer to Africa No. 1, which transmits, throughout the day, from the capital of Gabon (Libreville) in French, to West Africa, at 17630 kHz, but which it is heard very well in Europe with its 250 Kw of power; in addition to the Short Wave (16, 19 and 31 meters) it has a network of FM transmitters in the Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Niger, Mali, Senegal, Congo, Chad, Togo, Burkina Faso and also in France. It covers African events, including lively football reports! It also features numerous programs of good African music.
- 15m band (18900 to 19020 kHz):
The broadcasting band of 15 meters is the newest of all; was created only in 1992 by the World Administrative Radio Conference for the Planning of High Frequency Broadcasting Bands (WARC-HFBC).
Located between the bands of 16 and 13 meters, the band of 15 meters was never much sought after, neither by broadcasters nor by listeners.
It is used by the official radio stations in Norway and Denmark (which use the same transmitters) and Sweden, with antennas directed towards the Americas.
There are also two broadcasters from the United States with religious programs: WSHB, from South Carolina; and WYFR, with issuer in Florida.
All of these stations, with the exception of WYFR (100 Kw), use powerful 500 Kw emitters.
WSHB broadcasts half-hour programs in Portuguese to Europe; it also broadcasts in English and French.
WYFR, “The Family Radio”, indicates in its advertising an address in California.
And as for the 15 meter band, you can’t hear anything else …
Speaking of these two stations, we now refer to a phenomenon that has been taking place for some years now and which are American broadcasters with religious programs in Onda Curta.
Trans World Radio, which also exists in Swaziland, appears to be the most important, with broadcasters also in France, Monaco, Poland, Armenia, Netherlands Antilles, etc.
Without wishing to present an exhaustive list, we refer to the following:
– The Overcomer Ministry;
– World Beacon / African Beacon;
– World Wide Christian Radio;
– Family Radio, WYFR;
– Voice of Hope;
– Catholic Radio WEWN;
– World Harvest Radio;
– WJCR World Wide;
– KTBN International;
– KAIJ International – WBCQ, from Maine;
– WMLK, from Pennsylvania;
– WVHA, from Florida;
– WHSB, Boston;
– WSHB, from South Carolina;
– WTJC, from North Carolina;
– WGTG, from Tennessee;
– WWBS, KJES, etc.
These stations present religious programs, which can be both calm and inviting reflection, as well as excited and underlined by applause and responses such as “Amen” and “Hallelujah”. They also broadcast songs.
When we speak of this reality, we make no comment. We prefer to transcribe Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which, on this subject, says:
“Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right implies the freedom to change religion or belief, as well as the freedom to manifest their religion or belief, either alone or in common, both publicly and privately, through teaching, practices, worship and the performance of rites . ” If people understand that this is the proper way to spread their Faith, then it is permissible for them to use it. This attitude gives reason to those who think that, even today, Onda Curta is a powerful means of propagating ideas.
In Portugal, as well as in Angola and Mozambique, there are Catholic broadcasters: such as Rádio Renascença (Portugal), Radio Ecclesia (Angola) and Rádio Pax da Beira (Mozambique).
In Poland there is Radio Maria and, with this name, there are stations of religious inspiration in several countries.
The largest Catholic radio in the world is, without a doubt, Vatican Radio, which broadcasts from the State of the Holy See, near the city of Rome, capital of Italy.
Vatican Radio broadcasts in 37 languages, from “A” in Albanian to “V” in Vietnamese, through Esperanto and Latin. These 37 languages include Portuguese and Swahili.
It uses all bands intended for radio broadcasting in Short Wave, from 13 to 49 meters and one more frequency just after the 75 meter limit. The highest frequency is 21850 kHz, destined for Brazil, but which arrives very well in Portugal; the lowest is 4005 kHz, used in winter for Europe.
In Portuguese, Vatican Radio broadcasts to Europe, South America and Africa; and in Swahili for East Africa.
Adventist World Radio (AWR) was founded 30 years ago and has broadcasters in Guam, Italy, Germany, South Africa, Austria and Madagascar. It also broadcasts via Satellite and the Internet.
Between the end of the 15 meters band and the beginning of the 13 meters band, there is another band of 15 meters, but from radio amateurs. It is a very lively band, with a lot of use during the day. But, as it is daytime at any time, considering the whole of the planet Earth, we can capture the emissions in Single Side Band of amateurs from all over the World at any time. Of course, the receiver, desktop or portable, must have SSB / BLU.
Before the amateur radio band, there is a station that gives a 24 hour clock signal at 20 MHz (15 meters) in BLU (Upper Lateral Band).
Next, at 20275 kHz, there is a repeater from Radio Rivadavia, from Argentina. This is a phenomenon that still persists, despite the use of satellites to bring sound to transmitters. It is a small SSB transmitter, which connects the studios to the transmitters, which are then tuned in AM (Amplitude of Modulation) by the general public.
It happens, also in the 60 meters band, with a repeater of the “radio and television service of the American forces”, which broadcasts from Italy and is heard throughout Europe and North Africa 24 hours a day.
- 13m band (21450 to 21850 kHz):
This is a radio broadcast band used to cover great distances, for intercontinental transmissions.
The 13-meter band starts with a broadcast, interesting in terms of listening, in “upper side band”, SSB / USB, destined for Western Europe and the South Pacific, simultaneously, at 21455 kHz. If we look at the relative locations of these two regions and the Republic of Ecuador (where the broadcast originates), we notice that they are in the same thread … That is: the same antenna transmits to the South and to the North at the same time! The broadcaster is on the air for almost twenty hours a day, in Spanish and English, presenting religious programs from Rádio HCJB, Quito, Ecuador.
The same frequency is used by the American broadcaster, also for religious programs, “Family Radio”, during the hours when HCJB turns off the broadcaster. “Family Radio” broadcasts to Europe in English, French and German, on this frequency.
At a slightly higher frequency, this same HCJB Radio appears at night transmitting to Europe in five languages, successively.
In the 13 meters band, they transmit several stations in Portuguese, to Africa: Voice of America, United Nations Radio, “Family Radio” and Radio Portugal; Vatican Radio appears, at the end of the band, in Portuguese for Brazil.
This band does not register the use of some international bands, which we saw earlier, such as 19 and 25 meters. There are stations, in the 13 meter band, that only broadcast once or twice a week. And there is even one, very interesting, that is only in the air once a month! This is the South African Radio League, the South African Amateur Radio League, which broadcasts for only one hour, on a specific Sunday of the month!
Despite lower demand from radio stations, broadcasts from more than thirty countries and five continents appear in the 13-meter band. From Australia to the Vatican, through countries as different as Norway or Pakistan, Turkey or Chile, Iran or the United States.
In the midst of this diversity, the weakest emitter operating in the band, has only 2 Kw of power and belongs to Rádio para a Paz Internacional. It transmits from Costa Rica and, in that band and with that power, it will perhaps be heard predominantly by radio wiretaps, which have communications receivers.
Then, emitters of all powers appear, from 20 to 500 Kw. The “Canal África”, from South Africa, has precisely 500 Kw emitters in this band.
- 11m band (25670 to 26100 kHz):
Without any transition between 13 and 11 meters, with regard to stations to be broadcast outside the bands, the highest frequency range for broadcasting appears to us.
The 11 meter band is currently used only by two radio stations, which use 500 Kw transmitters:
– The Voice of Germany, which broadcasts in German for six hours a day to Asia and Europe;
– And Radio France International, in French, four hours a day for Africa.
During periods of “low solar activity”, this 11-meter band is rarely used. Frequency reception in this band is much better in the area around Ecuador (Tórrida Zone) than in temperate zones. Listeners in São Tomé and Príncipe, Northern Angola, Congo, Gabon, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda or Northern Tanzania, have good listening conditions in the 11 meter band, during some hours of the day. The same is true of radio listeners in the Amazon (Northern Brazil), Southern Colombia, the Republic of Ecuador and elsewhere on the globe.