Principles and Management of Archives

One of the office activities is information management, one of which is sourced from a document or archive. With office activities that are always associated with archives, it is necessary to maintain records in the office.

The purpose of this management is so that the archive can be easily accessed by anyone with an interest. Before entering into archive management, you need to understand the basics in archives first.

Chapter List 

Definition of Archives

Archives according to Law number 43 of 2009 concerning archives have the meaning of recording activities or events in various forms and media in accordance with the development of information and communication technology made and accepted by state institutions, local governments, educational institutions, companies, political organizations, social organizations , and individuals in the life of society, nation and state.

The International Standards Organization (ISO on record management-ISO 15489) provides an understanding that archives or documents are information that is created, received, and managed as evidence or information that is used by organizations or individuals to fulfill legal obligations or business transactions.

The Liang Gie believes that is a collection of documents that are stored systematically because it has a purpose so that whenever needed it can be quickly found again.

The Office Administration Dictionary states that the archive is a collection of scripts that are stored on a regular basis because they have a purpose so that each time they are found they can be recovered quickly. Documents hereinafter referred to as archives must fulfill the following conditions:

  • Must have uses / benefits
  • Must be stored regularly and planned
  • Can be found easily and quickly

Archive Types

According to subject or content

Based on the subject or contents, archives can be distinguished as follows:

  • Staffing records, such as employee attendance data, employee history data, appointment letters, etc.
  • Marketing records, such as offer letters, customer lists, purchase orders, order letters, product data, and so on.
  • Financial records, such as payroll, proof of payment, financial statements, and so on.
  • Educational Archives, such as lesson plans, student report cards, student attendance lists, and so on.

According to the value of usability

The classification of records based on their usefulness is divided into the following:

  • Archive information, such as invitations, announcements, memos, notifications, etc.
  • Administrative records, such as decisions, work procedures, job descriptions, organizational requirements, and so on.
  • Historical archives, such as annual reports, photos of events, activity reports, and so on.
  • Educational Archives, such as scientific papers, journals, learning programs, curriculum, and so forth.
  • Financial records, such as proof of payment, receipts, financial statements, and so forth.
  • Scientific archives, such as research results
  • Legal archives, such as land certificates, birth certificates, power of attorney, company certificates, and so on.

According to authenticity

Archive classification based on authenticity is divided into:

  • The original file, which is a document directly from a typewriter, printer, with the original signature and legalization stamp. The original archive is the main document.
  • Copies of copy, referred to as the second, third, and so on document. This document was made with the original document but addressed to parties other than the original document recipient.
  • Copies of Copies, i.e. documents that are made not together with the original documents but are the same or in accordance with the original documents.
  • Excerpt archives, i.e. documents that contain a portion of the original documents.

According to function

Based on its function, the archive can be divided into the following:

  • Static archives, which are records that are not used directly in daily office activities.
  • Dynamic archives, which are archives that are still used in daily office activities directly.

According to management level

This classification is not only based on the level of management but also those responsible for its management. The classification is as follows:

  • Central archive, i.e. archive stored centrally or at the center of an organization. An example is the National Archives in Jakarta, the central archive of a company.
  • Unit records, which are records that are in certain units in the organization. An example is the National Archives of Central Java, an archive in a company’s marketing unit.

According to the nature of interests

Archives based on their importance or urgency can be divided into the following:

  • Vital archives, such as company establishment files, land certificates, diplomas, birth certificates, etc.
  • Important records, such as financial statements, payroll, decrees, and so on.
  • Useful records, such as leave letters, employee attendance lists, and so on.
  • Archives are not useful, such as memos, invitation letters, brochures, and so on.

According to physical form

This classification distinguishes archives based on the physical form of the media used to record information. The classification is as follows:

  • Letter
  • Digital file
  • Recording
  • Diskette
  • CD
  • Microfilm

According to the force of law

In terms of legal legality, archives can be divided into:

  • Authentic archive, which is an archive that has an original signature (not a photocopy or film) as a sign of the validity of the archive.
  • Archives are not authentic, ie archives that do not have the original signature in the document (only in the form of a photocopy or other type of copy).

Archive Management

Archives are not something that is foreign to an office but not all offices are able to manage records properly. The level of difficulty in managing the records of each organization also varies. The larger an organization, the more complex its records management and vice versa.

As a source of management information, all documents or records in an organization must be handled specifically so that they are maintained and easily found if needed. Management of records in an office commonly referred to as records management or records management.

Records management is defined as the art of controlling documents in the form of controlling the use, maintenance, protection, and storage of records. Archival management can also be interpreted as the maintenance of records which includes recording, controlling and distributing, storing, maintaining, supervising, transferring and destroying. Archival management is limited in POAC aspects (Planning, Orgaizing, Actuating, and Controling)

  • Planning (Planning) is a very important activity because without planning the activities will not run well. Planning activities in managing archives include planned archives to be carried out, media tools used, ways of archiving services, to how the destruction and preservation of archives.
  • Organizing is the follow up of a plan. Plans that have been made are coordinated with members of the organization and formed a concrete step for implementation. The steps that need to be taken in managing the archive, namely:
  1. Competent employees according to their fields
  2. Finance supports the management plan archives
  3. Adequate archive equipment
  4. System or method of storing archives is good
  5. File management system that is tailored to management activities
  • Actuating which includes the activities of carrying out archival management steps from the initial receipt of the archive to destruction or preservation. This activity also includes maintaining archives with supervision.
  • Controlling (Supervision) is the entire supervision of all components of the management of records so that the implementation of records management can run according to certain standards, effective, and efficient.

Principle in Archives

Based on the Filing Law, the organization and management of records is carried out with the following principles:

  • The principle of legal certainty, the implementation of preparedness is carried out on the basis of law and in accordance with the rules of the Act, and justice in the policies of the organizers of the state.
  • The principle of trustworthiness, archival activities must be original and trusted in order to be used as evidence.
  • The principle of integrity, the administration of archives must be avoided from the reduction, addition, and alteration in terms of both content and physical that can reduce the reliability of the archive.
  • The principle of origin, archives must be managed in one archive creator unit and not mixed with other creators.
  • The principle of the original rules, the archive must be arranged in accordance with the original settings or with the rules when the archive is still used for the activities of the creator of the archive.
  • The principle of security, archives must be guaranteed security from the possibility of leakage and misuse of information by unauthorized users.
  • The principle of safety, archives must be guaranteed their safety from harm from both nature and human actions.
  • The principle of professionalism, the organization of records must be carried out by parties who are professional and competent in the field of records.
  • The principle of responsiveness, in organizing archives, must be responsive to issues involving archiving or other issues related to archiving.
  • Principle of anticipation, the organization of archives must be aware of changes and developments in the importance of records.
  • The principle of participation, the administration of archives must provide opportunities for the community to play a role in the field of archives.
  • The principle of accountability, archives must be able to reflect an activity and event in the record as material for accountability.
  • The principle of expediency must provide benefits for the life of the community, nation and state.
  • The principle of accessibility, the administration of records must make it easy for the public to utilize the archive.
  • The principle of public interest, the administration of archives pay attention to the public interest and avoid discrimination.
by Abdullah Sam
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