Power Regulator up to 10000wat for single phase motors and lights

Power Regulator . Speed ​​control for motors, regulator for inductive loads. It allows to regulate the speed of 220 V single-phase electric motors, whose power is less than 5000 W. With a small reform it is possible to reach 10000 W output.

Summary

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  • 1 Background
  • 2 Recommendations
  • 3 Circuit
  • 4 ASSEMBLY NOTES
  • 5 LIST OF COMPONENTS
    • 1 RESISTORS
    • 2 CAPACITORS
    • 3 SEMICONDUCTORS
    • 4 MISCELLANEOUS
  • 6 Source

Background

The rotational speed of a single-phase motor is directly proportional to the average value of the current that passes through it in each half cycle . The only thing to do to regulate its speed is to be able to connect it with a phase shift that goes from 0 degrees for the maximum speed to 90 degrees for the minimum. As this would be impossible to achieve with a mechanical device that connects and disconnects the motor, the triac is used . In this way, it is possible to connect it with the required time offset and we do not need a disconnection device, since this semiconductor cuts off the current supply each time the line voltage crosses the imaginary axis of 0 V.

The only thing that is needed is to shoot the triac in phase with the line and for this we take the control voltage from the same line using the reactive divider formed by R2, P1 and C2; From the union of P1 with C2, the voltage to trigger the triac is taken. For this, capacitors C1 and C2 must be charged at a higher voltage level than the one triggered by the DIAC (30 V).

Acting on P1, it is achieved that the reactance of the capacitor is decreased with respect to the series P1-R2, therefore, in order to store 30 V in C1 and C2, the line voltage must approach its peak voltage, with which the phase shift occurs and therefore the reduction in motor speed.

recommendations

It is recommended to electrically isolate the triac from the heatsink through the use of mica and nipples (the heatsink must be isolated from human contact since there may be 200 Vac in it). Add silicone grease to improve thermal contact.

Circuit

The circuit supports a maximum load of 5000 W. In case of higher powers (up to 10000 W), the board tracks must be tinned, replacing TIC1 with a BTB 41-400 increasing the surface area of ​​the heatsink. It is also desirable that L1 be built with thicker wire. The switch is added to increase the life of the TIC, and a fuse is added for protection. Its value depends on the maximum consumption to be used. This value is determined by the formula (A = W / 220 V) The DIAC has no polarity.

MOUNTING NOTES

If used with powers up to 1000 W, the supplied heatsink is sufficient. For higher powers the heatsink should be larger. Since the heatsink is connected to 220 Vac, caution should be exercised when handling the board, in case of expanding the heatsink. It is recommended to electrically isolate the triac from the heatsink through the use of mica and nipples (the heatsink must be isolated from human contact since there may be 200 Vac in it). Add silicone grease to improve thermal contact. The circuit supports a maximum load of 5000 W. In case of higher powers (up to 10000 W), the board tracks must be tinned, replacing TIC1 with a BTB 41-400 increasing the surface area of ​​the heatsink. It is also desirable that L1 be built with thicker wire. The switch is added to increase the life of the TIC, and a fuse is added for protection. Its value depends on the maximum consumption to be used. This value is determined by the formula (A = W / 220 V) the DIAC has no polarity.

COMPONENT LIST

RESISTORS

  • R1 = 8.2 Kohms (Gray-Red-Red)
  • R2 = 8.2 Kohms (Gray-Red-Red)
  • R3 = 100 Ohms (Brown-Black-Brown)

CAPACITORS

  • C1 = 100 nF 400 V (Polyester)
  • C2 = 47 nF 400 V (Polyester)
  • C3 = 100 nF 400 V (Polyester)
  • C4 = 100 nF 400 V (Polyester)

SEMICONDUCTORS

  • D1 = DIAC 30 V
  • TIC 1 = BTB 24-400

VARIOUS

  • L1 = (*)
  • P1 = 250 Kohms linear potentiometer

(*) L1 is made on a piece of ferrite 25 mm long, on 1.5mm diameter wire

 

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