Political Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle.According to Aristotle that humans are political (animal) creatures ( zoon poticon ). In this case, Aristotle’s political philosophy refers to society itself, so Aristotle emphasizes his political philosophy on social relations in society or the state so that people know the mind, and carry out its functions both individually and socially.
Because humans are social creatures they foster relational relationships between people or carry out social interactions which will further inspire the interaction of institutions that are institutionalized in an organization called the state. In this view, human ideals in their knowledge is to reach the truth, no one loves an error. That the real object of knowing is truth. If people know that their knowledge is not true, so they try, so that humans can reach the truth. Human knowledge makes humans creative, meaning that humans try not only to reach the truth, but may try to find out all their objects with all its aspects. Such things are not done by animals. Perhaps with regard to several types of animals, one might say, that they also have knowledge, but that knowledge is receptive, they accept, and unknowingly put something in relation to something. Humans at a time when he could not use his budding, pre-logical and rather than pre-verbal, also only have receptive knowledge, he did not know the truth. Knowing the truth is human privilege, that is what distinguishes him from animals. Having the mind is a characteristic of manuisa (Poedjawiyatna, 1990). Knowing the truth is human privilege, that is what distinguishes him from animals. Having the mind is a characteristic of manuisa (Poedjawiyatna, 1990). Knowing the truth is human privilege, that is what distinguishes him from animals. Having the mind is a characteristic of manuisa (Poedjawiyatna, 1990).
Furthermore, it is so difficult to argue that humans are constantly pursuing good things. And when distinguishing a good life from a bad life, something that deserves to be done from what should not be done, in fact humans do so because they know the good, the right, and deserve to go towards the proper goals. That is a person should live, because only a good life will bring him towards the fulfillment of the highest good that he might achieve, towards fulfilling the goals for what he is, for what he is in existence (Poespoprodjo, 1998). Therefore political philosophy is an ideal concept of the state and power, in which talking about the common good, and the common good can be realized through good knowledge about politics. At least in Aristotle’s view, political philosophy is like a cure for a disease called conflict. Although conflicts in society are difficult to reconcile.
That is also what Plato said; for him, the goal of human life is a happy and happy life. Humans must strive for the pleasure and happiness of life. But what is happiness and happiness in life? According to Plato; the pleasure and happiness of life is not the satisfaction of lust while living in the sensory world. Plato was consistent with his teachings about the two worlds (he illustrated in the myth of the cave). Therefore, the pleasure and happiness of life must be seen in the relationship between the two worlds. As Plato thought about the world of ideas, the real world for Plato is the world of ideas. All ideas with good ideas or good ideas and virtue ideas as the highest ideas in the world of ideas are actual reality. Whereas everything in the sensory world is only a shadow reality (Rapar,
In this case, political philosophy seeks happiness or true pleasure, and true pleasure can be realized when humans in the political context do not prioritize sensual pleasure, political happiness will occur when humans put forward the pleasure of the world of ideas, the ideal world that exists in the ideal world as well. Therefore Plato believes that a country will create its idealism – where all citizens are happy when the country has a leader, namely; king philosopher. In the terminology of Plato’s philosophy; the king’s philosopher who has attained the highest level of wisdom.
Plato believes that humans consist of three parts, namely; head, chest and stomach. The head stores wisdom, the chest stores warmth, and the stomach contains lust. In this context the ideal leader lies in a wise person whose head (reason) is the commander, while those who rely on their enthusiasm are suitable to be warriors or soldiers, and those who prioritize their stomachs are fit to become traders. Plato’s philosophical theory rests on the functions of roles in society, and the political leader in a country must be a king philosopher whose reason (idea) is commander in chief and in that idea the policy resides. Justice can be realized when in a third state the function or part of the body goes in harmony, meaning that a soldier becomes a soldier (breast nature), a trader becomes a trader (the nature of the stomach), and a leader becomes a leader (the nature of the head) the three functions may not intervene or interfere with each other, thus the country will become a just country. In line with what Aristotle had stated, even from Plato’s thought; that political philosophy wishes to minimize conflict, so that happiness in society can be realized.