Peru – History, capital, map, location, flag, economy, resources

The Peru is a country in Latin America , with a typical culture and striking landscapes that are found only in the country, attracting many tourists to this region.

In addition, the country is home to the stories of ancient civilizations, harboring a strong historical and cultural load.

Index [ hide ]

  • History of Peru
    • Ancient civilizations
  • Colonization of Peru
  • Independence of Peru
    • Fujimori regime
  • Culture of Peru
  • Peru Location
  • Information about Peru
  • Flag of Peru
  • Peru’s natural resources
  • economy
  • Population of Peru

History of Peru

The country is named officially as the Republic of Peru and its official language is called Spanish.

Peruvian territory was home to ancient civilizations and was also dominated by Europeans who established a colony there. Thus, the territory of Peru was dominated by different groups.

Ancient civilizations

There are indications that, in approximately 10 560 BC, the oldest civilization in the world resided in Peru . This civilization is called the Caral Civilization , which lived on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Thus, the Caral people are responsible for being one of the cradles of all Peruvian culture.

The Inca civilization was also part of the history of Peru, constituting the largest empire in Pre-Colombian America . This empire expanded throughout South America , spreading from southern Chile to the north in Colombia, reaching 2 million km².

Thus, this civilization reached great military splendor and also stood out for its architecture that became very famous as in the city of Machu Picchu .

However, the Inca Empire came to an end due to a smallpox epidemic between 1524 and 1526, causing the death of Inca ruler Huayna Capac and his family, including heirs, which led to the fall of the empire.

Colonization of Peru

After the fall of the great Inca Empire, there was a civil war between two brothers, Atahualpa and Huáscar, for possession of the empire. However, in 1532, the Peruvian people relied on invasions of Europeans, led by Francisco Pizarro, who established Spanish rule and the condition of a colony until their declaration of independence in 1821.

Independence of Peru

José San Martin declaring the Independence of Peru

In 1821, San Martin, an Argentine general active in military campaigns and in favor of independent movements, took over Peru’s political-military command, declaring independence .

This movement generated wars between the local elite and the Spanish Empire. The conflicts ended only in 1824 at the Battle of Ayacucho , with the help of Simon Bolívar and his liberation army, culminating in the Spanish defeat. Thus, the condition of Republic of Peru was established.

Fujimori regime

In the 1990 elections, Alberto Fujimori was elected president of Peru. However, he suffered from strong opposition in Congress, and in 1992, Fujimori started a constitutional crisis. This was because he used the support of the armed forces, dissolved Congress and restricted freedom of the press.

In addition, he drafted a new constitution that he enacted in 1993. Fujimori remained in power until 2000, when he resigned his post after strong accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, human rights violations and putting the country through a long economic downturn.

Culture of Peru

The Peruvian culture is indigenous to the Andean civilizations that lived in the country, forming a mosaic of cultures. These ancient civilizations were based on agriculture, developing techniques such as irrigation and terracing, camel farming and fishing.

The Peruvian architecture has monuments and works carried out by the Andean people, who today are symbol historic setting. In addition, museums are very important as a representation of local art and culture.

In addition, handicrafts are also very striking in the local culture, as they produce fabrics made with llama or alpaca wool, with lively and vibrant colors.

These fabrics are transformed into ponchos, hats, blankets, hammocks, hats, shoes, jackets, among others, typical of the region.

Read also:  17 Typical Peruvian Foods – Lots of pepper, corn, potatoes and seafood

Peru Location

Located in the western part of South America, Peru has a coastal portion bathed by the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the country borders Chile to the south, Bolivia and Brazil to the east, and Colombia and Ecuador to the north.

The country’s capital is Lima, which is the most populous city in Peru.

Information about Peru

The Republic of Peru has an area of ​​1,285,220 km², being the third largest country in South America. It has a total population of 33 105 273 inhabitants and the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) represents US $ 503.734 billion.

The country’s official language is Castilian, but some co-official languages ​​such as Quechua, Aymara, among other native languages ​​are also considered.

As for religion, Peru covers about 96.3% as Christians , 2.1% other religions and 1.4% are atheists.

Flag of Peru

The flag of Peru is represented with three vertical lines, of equal size, with two of the red ends and the middle white band.

The red color refers to the standard of the Incas and the flag of the kingdom of Castile, Spain . The white color symbolizes peace, purity of feelings and justice.

Peru’s natural resources

Peru is a region rich in natural resources and its economy depends on its raw materials. This is due to the fact that these raw materials represent 60% of the country’s exports and are therefore essential for the economy.

Peru is a major producer of silver, zinc , copper and gold . In addition, he is a great explorer of oil and gas.


The Peruvian currency is the sun and the country has been undergoing increasing economic development in the last 15 years. In addition, it represents the largest economic growth in Latin America in 2015 according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Peru is considered an emerging country , with a Human Development Index of 0.759, considered high, and the nominal GDP of US $ 7,007, both from 2018.

Informal services and exports are the most significant parts of its economy.

The main agricultural products of the country are: artichoke, mango, coffee, sugar, asparagus, potatoes, bananas and peppers.

In addition, the country’s industry focuses on the production of fishmeal and fish oil, with Peru being the second most fishing country in the world.

In addition, there is the manufacture of textile products, beverages, chemicals, canned vegetables, etc. The mineral export industry also stands out, which represents 23% of all exports in the country.

Population of Peru

Peru has many population groups over the years and therefore has a multi-ethnic background .

As a result, a study was carried out to study the population’s genetic material, carried out by the University of Brasília in 2008. The result established the following composition: 73% indigenous, 15-10% European and 11.9% African.

According to ethnic studies from the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI), the population is classified as 59.5% mestizo, 22.7% Quechua, 2.7% Aymara, 1.8% Amazonian, 1.6% black / brown, 4.9% white and 6.7% consider themselves from other ethnicities.

The country has more than 33 million inhabitants, according to a 2019 sense, being the fifth most populous country in South America.

The population distribution by country happens to 72.2% living in urban area and 27.8 live in rural regions. In addition, 55% of the population lives on the country’s coast and 45% in the Amazon and Andean regions.

As for birth and death rates, they are 20.48% and 6.23%, respectively.


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