Parts of building

The building is defined as a construction that is dedicated to safeguarding different human activities. These can be: temples, houses, shops, theaters, among many others.

Human invention has improved the decoration and construction techniques of each of its parts until the building activity has been brought to one of the Fine Arts, that is, to architecture.

They can be large, short, small, or tall. There are many buildings with different sizes and shapes, but each one has things in common. The construction of a building is determined by a set of factors such as the characteristics of the soil, the available construction materials, weather conditions and determining factors such as the budget.

All buildings, as mentioned above, have common elements between them. To build tall buildings, you need to buy the best kinds of scaffolding and lifting platforms. Below are the parts and elements of a building that appear commonly.


  • 1What are the parts of a building?
    • 1Structure
    • 2Foundations
    • 3External Walls
    • 4Facades
    • 5Vertical Transport Systems
    • 6Interior partitions
    • 7Supply Systems
    • 8Communication Devices
    • 9Installations
    • 10Cover

What are the parts of a building?


The structure of a building is made up of the different elements of the skeleton. Frame or truss structures are used. The main elements of the structure are:

  • Pillars: Pillars are elements in the vertical position of the structure, they work to maintain the slabs.
  • Slabs: They are the horizontal planes that separate the building vertically, that is, in floors. The floors are made up of joists, iron meshes, vaults and concrete fill.
  • Load-bearing walls : Load-bearing walls bear the weight of other components of the building structure.
  • Beams: They are horizontal elements that are used to support the weight of the slabs and carry it to the pillars.

The structure of the building is subjected to different types of stress such as traction, compression, shear stress and flexion. The most important characteristics are the stability that prevents the building from overturning and the rigidity that prevents its deformation.



The lowest area of ​​the architectural structure offers stability and support to the entire building.

External Walls

The exterior walls provide the appearance of the building and work in conjunction with the supporting structure.


Vertical enclosures that protect the building from meteorological agents, that is: from cold, heat, rain, wind and noise. They provide privacy and, thanks to their windows, establish connections with the external part, allowing light to enter. The facade is the external image of the house and those who occupy it, it is made up of the street and shapes the appearance of the towns and cities. The finish is usually a fragile point in the building because it has direct contact with the elements.

Vertical Transport Systems

Vertical transport systems make it possible for anyone to move from one floor of the building to another using elevators and stairs.

Interior partitions

They correspond to the interior walls of the building that separate the floors in the different rooms. They can be corridors, rooms, landings, among others.

Supply systems

In the supply systems are water supplies, electricity supply and waste disposal.

Communication Devices

Devices that enable communication between the different areas of the building and between themselves. A simple example is the door phone.


They compose the machinery and equipment that produces energy inside the building and distributes it through it. The facilities provide comfort in the interior part of the building and it is a complex part that requires constant maintenance.


They are the horizontal elements that together with the facades protect the building from atmospheric agents. There are two main types of roofs: sloped and flat.


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