In the field of engineering and architecture, the element of the structure that is mostly used for inflection is called a beam . Its resistance has the ability to produce traction and understanding. Despite this, when placed on the external perimeter of a slab, it gives rise to the possibility of torsional stresses.
Normally, the beam is horizontal, above the other two dimensions its length predominates. Its structural behavior is studied thanks to a mechanical prism model. A beam has the function of receiving the loads of the flat elements or the slabs that are located above it, it can also transmit these loads to the column of the structure.
There are different materials that make up the beam such as wood, steel, reinforced concrete, etc. There are also different dimensions that can be square, rectangular, type T, type I, and many more. Examples of beams are the horizontal crossbars that are below the dash of a desk or chair, there is also a window or door frame.
WHAT ARE ITS PARTS?
- 1Parts of a Beam
- 1Materials and Composition of the Beams
- 2types according to their composition
- 1Concrete Beams
- 2Wood Beams
- 3Iron or Steel Beams
- 3Beam Functions
Parts of a Beam
The vertical area of a beam is called a soul. This is located in the middle part of it, it has two flat parts which are called wings. The wing, also known as the skate, are the upper and lower parts which are also horizontal, resist flexing and govern width.
If viewed from the front, their appearance is a capital Latin i. The core of this construction component is in charge of ruling the cant as its main task, it has the ability to resist shear.
Materials and Composition of the Beams
The beams can be used in wood and concrete, also in welded irons with cross pieces to enable the union, the support and the four angle strips. The materials used to make the beams must be durable, resistant and flexible. Therefore, ceramic, stone or other denomination elements are not used to form them.
Types according to their Composition
The beams are made thanks to the use of prestressed and post-tensioned concrete due to their adequacy to the demands of the works and efforts, differentiating themselves from the previous reinforced concrete. The concrete beams have adequate flexibility, greater resistance and adapt better to the stresses of the ground, showing adaptation to the requirements. They have a greater weight than those of iron, these are normally used in construction of houses.
The wood of the beams is orthotropically shaped with a diversity of strength and rigidity. This provides the possibility of supporting different directions in the efforts, regardless of whether they are parallel or transverse to the wood fiber. Compared to other materials, wood can withstand demands that have minor deformations.
Iron or Steel Beams
The steel beams behave isotropically. These pieces weigh less than concrete and resist more. Thanks to these characteristics, they can withstand large tensile stresses, together with compression efforts. This makes them favorites when this item is needed to build residential or urban works.
The beams are attached to the columns and support the structures and loads of construction sites, allowing flexibility. These parts are used to support roofs, openings, and structural bridge areas. When they are made or assembled, it is necessary to know with certainty that the beams have the capacity to correctly withstand the efforts of attraction and understanding simultaneously.