Motivation and Incentives In Company And Organization

he effectiveness of any organization is related to the efficiency of the human factor, his ability to work and his desire for it as the influential and effective element in the use of the available material resources. And management relies in maximizing results on rationalizing the use of available material and human resources. It may be difficult to rationalize the use of the human element due to the multiplicity of the variables specified for it, to the point of increasing the difficulty of the administration’s ability to rationalize the use of this element, which made the main problem facing management in any organization is to identify the specific variables for this element that are reflected in the behavior of those individuals who represent the ability Work in an organization.

Motivations and incentives are among the basic influences that play an important and vital role in the behavior of individuals, and through them, they can create their desire for performance. Which can be said with it that the ability of organizations to achieve their goals depends to a large extent on the success of the management in providing the sufficient amount of motivation among the individuals and establishing an effective system of incentives that directs to raise the motives that in turn motivate workers to produce and achieve their satisfaction with that work: «Which leads to Raise the morale and increase performance rates ».

The importance of motives and incentives lies in their influence on human behavior, as they are considered an important factor in determining the behavior of individual performance at work. No matter how similar or close individuals’ experiences and capabilities are, one of the reasons for the difference in performance is due to the strength of the individual’s desire or motivation to perform the work.   

Definition of motivation

Motivation is an unsatisfied need that leads to a specific behavior of the individual, and this behavior is determined by the strength of the motivation. The search for food comes from the natural reality of hunger, and once this need is satisfied, this behavior will cease.

So the motives are a group of desires, needs, and internal forces that drive and direct human behavior towards specific goals. In other words, it is everything that activates and maintains human behavior or changes the direction, intensity and nature of behavior .

Hence the importance of motivation in influencing individual performance and behavior. . . Meaning. . . That if there is a high ability to perform and suitable conditions for work, this will not lead to high performance unless there is a motivation for the individual to perform, and therefore organizations must direct their efforts to push workers, influence their behavior, and raise their motives in favor of work, and if management succeeds in Any organization in raising the motivations of individuals and motivating them to work so that it has succeeded to a large degree in achieving its goals with a high degree of efficiency, and the ability of management to influence the behavior of employees and raise their motivation to work depends on several factors, namely:

The quality of the motives

The administration must identify the types of motivations that can arouse an individual’s enthusiasm and drive him to work, determine the most influencing of the individual’s behavior, and then use the appropriate methods to raise them. The difference in motivations from one individual to another represents a serious challenge that management must face in order to succeed in addressing the true motivation of the individual to work.

The nature of the methods used to induce impulses

The methods used to raise motives vary, some of which depend on threat and punishment, and some depend on reward and appetite for employees or workers, and management in any organization usually depends on a combination of these methods when moving the motives and raising them to push workers and urge them to work and it is the responsibility of management to choose the method Appropriate for employees, which contributes to moving their behavior as desired.

The degree of alignment between the goals of the individual and the organization

Often times the goals of the individual and the goals of the organization conflict. . . This conflict could cause a lot of problems that the administration has to face. The motives come to reduce the gap between the goals of the individual and the goals of the organization, and if the management succeeds in choosing the appropriate motive to reduce this gap between the goals of the individual and the organization, the motivation will have its value and positive impact.

Definition of incentives

Incentives are external factors that indicate the rewards an individual expects from doing something. That is, they represent the returns from which impulses are elicited and agitated. In this sense, the motivation is the external stimulus that satisfies the need and desire generated by the individual from his performance of a specific work, as the effectiveness of the incentives depends on their compatibility with the individual’s goal, need and desire.

Motivation Theories

There are many theories that try to explain the motivation process of individuals, including the following:

First. Theory ( the X, the Y ) of Douglas Makjroger

Douglas McGregor focused on the importance of understanding the relationship between motivation and the philosophy of human nature, and he built his theory that most managers tend to make assumptions about their workers, and choose the appropriate method to push them through them, and based on these assumptions, McGregor divided workers into two groups ( x, y ) For each of them, the main features are shown in the following table :


Elements of difference Theory ( X ) The pessimistic trend Theory ( Y ) optimistic trend
A look at work Work is uncomfortable for most people and their motto is (work must) Work is just as normal as playing if the working conditions are right
The ability to innovate Most individuals lack the ability to innovate in solving problems and tend to face traditional solutions. Innovative ability is distributed among individuals naturally distributed and most of them have the ability to innovate.
Workload Most individuals tend to perform at a minimum level of achievement which relieves them of accountability for lack of achievement. Most people try to do their best to do the largest amount of work possible.
Ambition and responsibility Most individuals are not ambitious and not up to the responsibility and always need someone to watch their work every step of the way. Most individuals tend to self-censor in order to achieve goals as they are trustworthy.
Motivation levels Motivation focuses on the level of physiological needs and safety (physical stimulation). Motivation focuses on the level of group belonging, appreciation, and self-actualization (moral stimulation)
Guidance Direct and close supervision and forceful pressure are required to achieve goals. Individuals direct and commit themselves to something related to their personality if motivated appropriately.

Managers and employees can benefit from the principles of x and y in motivating workers through their analysis of the personality of these workers and identifying the workers to whom the ideas of theory ( x ) and others to whom the ideas of theory ( y ) apply .


Secondly. Needs ladder theory :

Abraham Maslow believes that the needs and motives of man are arranged in a hierarchical manner, so that these needs are satisfied sequentially, meaning that the first need must be satisfied before moving to the next need in the hierarchy.

Definition of need

In Maslow’s view, a need is an internal force that drives an individual to do something to satisfy that self-need. Maslow divided human needs into five levels in a hierarchical scale as shown in the following figure:

Physiological needs

 They represent the basic needs of human life, such as eating, drinking, air and sex. These needs form the beginning of the base in the pyramid or the first level of needs.

Need security

It is the feeling of physical and psychological security, and the second level represents the needs of Maslow’s hierarchy. Knowing that this need is not satisfied until the first level of needs is satisfied as Maslow sees it, and so on for the other levels.

The need to belong

The individual’s need to be a member of a group to interact with and interact with.

Self-esteem need

The human need for appreciation and respect from others, his confidence in himself and his abilities, and the need for others to appreciate this.

Self-actualization need

 It is the human need to assert himself and his mission in existence in order to benefit from his energies and capabilities and achieve his goals, which are the high level of human needs.

Basic concepts of Maslow’s theory

1. The necessity of satisfying the lower needs first before the higher needs.

2. If a need is satisfied, it is no longer a motivation for behavior.

3. There is a network of cascading needs that influence an individual’s behavior

4. The means of satisfying the higher needs are more than those available to satisfy the primary needs.

Needs Ladder Theory Assessment (Maslow)

 This theory is characterized by clarity and lack of complexity, as it links between need and satisfaction. Unsatisfied needs drive behavior. However, there are many criticisms directed at this theory in terms of the existence of methodological and intellectual difficulties surrounding that theory. We mention the following:

1. There is no concrete evidence to support Maslow’s assumptions.

2. The satisfaction of one need may satisfy other needs.

3. Individual differences in terms of needs were not taken into consideration in this theory.


Managers can benefit from the principles of Maslow’s theory in motivating employees and motivating them to work by recognizing the needs of individuals and the degree of their satisfaction, and focusing on the unsatisfied needs when choosing the motivation method so that the motivation has an influential role in motivating workers and motivating them to work. If the manager notices that the attention of the subordinates is focused on the primary needs, he can succeed in motivating them to work if he focuses on the material incentives in both positive and negative forms (grants and prevention) to motivate them and stimulate them to work. If the interest of subordinates is focused on obtaining appreciation and respect for others, it can be motivated by focusing on the factors of appreciation and respect. Such as extending thanks and praise for the effort made and notifying them of the importance of their role in achieving the goals of the organization.

Third. Expectancy Theory (Fromm ): Expectation theory is based on four basic concepts:

The power of desire :

It is the individual’s belief and awareness that the effort expended in performing a job will lead to the required achievement. This desire is the result of realizing the expected benefits from performing a specific job.


The expectation is represented by the individual’s belief that by undertaking a certain level of effort puts him in performing the work that deserves a certain level of performance.


It is the method by which a specific result or level can be achieved. (Example: The student may set a “daily study for at least two hours” program that enables him to obtain a specific result (80 marks or above).


It is what an individual gets as a result of an effort or a performance.

Fourthly. Reinforcement theory (Skinner)

Skinner believes that environmental external factors are the determinants of human behavior, and this makes the role of reason and thinking less important for those working in this theory than for others. It can be said that reinforcers according to this theory are the ones that control behavior. The formation of individual behavior is controlled by these reinforcers.


They are the consequences that immediately follow a response from a person that increases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated and comes in the form of positive and negative reinforcers.

Positive reinforcers

Providing the reward (reinforcement) when and when the individual exhibits the desired behavior.

Negative reinforcers

Punishing the behavior, not giving the reward (reinforcement), or ignoring the behavior in cases where the individual does not present the desired behavior. Many field studies have indicated that the strategy of granting or withdrawing positive incentives leads to better results than using the strategy of punishment as an incentive.

Methods that govern the learning process (procedural conditioning methods)

These methods can be seen as governing the process of learning the behavior or transferring the learned behavior and its continuation. Among these methods:

·          Reinforcement: Presenting or withdrawing a stimulus whenever an individual performs a specific behavior.

·         Approximate gradient:  breaking the behavior into particles so that the easiest individual learns and then moves to the more difficult ones, while reinforcing this with reinforcers.

·         Immediate reinforcement: so that the reinforcement is immediately after the desired behavior, in order to strengthen the link between the individual and the behavior.

·         Knowledge of outcomes: Provides information on assessing an individual’s behavior especially in relation to specific activities.

The role of management with participation in motivation:

The administration plays a fundamental role in motivating employees and pushing them to increase productivity. The method of management in dealing with individuals and finding effective and necessary means to satisfy their needs and aspirations and achieve their desires pushes them to make more effort to increase production and achieve the goals of the organization.



Prediction theory Expectancy Theory

It is considered one of the most important theories that have gained acceptance in recent years. Whereas, the concepts of motivation established by Abraham Maslow and Fred Rick Herzberg do not take into account the differences between individuals but are limited to the explanation (why do working individuals behave in a certain way?).

Victor Fromm developed principles for a new theory based on anticipating the behavior of individuals called the expectation theory. Which attempts to interpret behavior according to individual goals, choices and expectations.

This theory assumes the following:

1- The individual can determine the type of output he prefers to reach and then develop realistic estimates of how to achieve this outcome.

2- Fromm explained that the motives are the result of a set of factors, namely the expectation ( E), the extent to which a person accepts the expected results ( V), and the correlation of the outcome with the quality of performance ( I) . This explains the following equation: –

Meaning: Motivation = expectation x acceptance x correlation between output and performance

Motivation = Expectaney X Valence X Instrumentlity

= E x Vx I

E expectation :

How well a person perceives the relationship between effort and level of performance.

Person’s acceptance of outcome V :

The extent to which a person perceives the value of the output generated to him to the extent that the person wishes to obtain or not obtain it.

Link I ?

The extent to which a person perceives the correlation between a certain outcome, positive or negative, and the level of work performance.

Practical application of expectancy theory

From the above, the expectation theory is based on answering two questions, namely.

Why does the individual make more effort …?

What does the individual expect from this effort …?

Usually, the employee expects an appropriate reward for his performance, and therefore every manager must relate greatly between the value of the reward and the level of performance performed by the worker. Also, the appropriate reward must be chosen in accordance with unsatisfied needs, which may be promotion, recognition, appreciation or self-realization.

We conclude from the foregoing that the basic principles of expectation theory require the manager to strive to link the performance of individuals and their expectations and incentives so that these incentives coincide with expectations and thus can drive them to work.




Recent trends in motivation

There are some concepts related to motivation that have currently captured the attention of many organizations due to their direct impact on improving productivity. These concepts include:

Quality rings Quatity Circles .

The Japanese model in theoretical management (z) .

We briefly show each of them below:


Quality rings. Quality Circles

The use of the quality movements method has met with great success in motivating workers, and achieving the highest level of quality and performance.

Quality workshops are based on the idea of ​​dividing employees into small groups and hold many meetings and intellectual meetings during work time to search for the appropriate means to perform the work with the appropriate quality.

And some organizations resort to forming quality circles from some workers at the same administrative level, but in different departments in addition to working groups whose members are chosen from different administrative levels. But in the same department. Hence, the quality circles do not focus only on a specific management activity, but rather extend to include all activities practiced within the organization.

The implementation of the Quality Circle Recommendations in many organizations has raised the quality level. Without exaggerating the role of workers in performance.

According to this method the workers acquire a higher ability to participate in the production processes. As they assume more responsibilities, which leads to an improvement in the level of work and performance.


Japanese Management Model (Z)

The theory ( Z) is based on the belief that providing a high degree of collective responsibility and loyalty based on participation and mutual appreciation between the organization (represented by senior management) and workers at different administrative levels will lead to an increase in performance rates. Increasing the well-being of workers and having a high degree of job satisfaction.

Organizations that adopt the theory of ( Z) tend to practice a life-long employment system, meaning that contracting and employing a worker in the organization is for life. It thus avoids laying off workers, thus achieving many advantages from them.

1- Low labor turnover.

2- Low absence rates.

3- High morale of workers.

– Thus, workers become more connected to their work, which is reflected in the increase in productivity and the improvement of the level of organization.


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